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Persecution of the Greeks 
in Turkey 

1914- 1918 



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"Persecution of the Greeks 
in Turkey" 

* 1914-1918 

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This Diocese comprises fifty-two Communities, and contains a 
population of 51,196 inhabitants. It is the one that suffered the 
most from tlie atrocities of the Balkan War, the savage persecutions 
of 1914, and the consequences of the Turk and Bulgarian alliance of 
September 1915. 

All that nature could devise in the way of unmerciful bastinado, 
unjustified arrests, imprisonment of peaceful, well-to-do people, with 
the sole object of extorting money from them, seizure of fortunes, 
requisitioning of houses and shops, etc., etc., all were put into 
practice, during the Bulgarian occupation of Thrace, with a view to 
exterminating the Cireek element there, such action being not only 
tolerated, but also promoted by the highest Bulgarian officials. 

When, in July 1918, Eastern Thrace was reconquered by the 
Turks, the Greek population, especially the peasants, suffered all 
kinds of martyrdom not only on the part of the irregulars but also 
of the regular Turkish troops. In March, 1914, began the ummerci- 
ful persecution of the Christians, whicli directly inspired by the then 
Governor of Adrianople, Hadji Adil Be}^ conducted by Government 
officials, and carried out by bands of gipsies and Musulman Albanians, 
forced the Greek population to leave their country. 

(a.) Persecution before and during the year 1914. 
(a.) Adrianople Region. 

1. KARA YOUSOUF. — During this persecution, the Turks 
killed Constantine Athanassiou and Elias Kalludi ; also the two 
brothers George and Basil Petrou. The inhabitants of this village 
fled to Greece, excepting a few families who remained in Adrianople. 

2. MOUSSOUL-BEYLI.— At the time of the re-occupation of 
Adrianople Turkish soldiers killed eight peasants and burnt alive 
Apostolos Georgiou. The remainder of the inhabitants were forced 
to flee to Bulgaria. 


3.- -yKMrn-HANLTL.— the inhabitants of this village were 
deported. They, with the exception of a few who went to Bulgaria, 
subsequently took refuge in Greece. This village was occupied by 
Turkish emigrants from Ortakeuy of Western Thrace. 

4. ORTAXI. — During the attack on this village, the Turkish 
irregular troops killed Anastasse Panteli. The damages done to the 
Greeks by both Bulgarians and Turks are great. The inhabitants fled 
to Greece, sixty-five famillies only escaping to Adrianople. This 
village was also given to the emigrants of Western Thrace. 

5. ARNAOUT-KEUY.— During the first Balkan War, this village 
being near the fort bearing the same name, was destroyed. Its 
inhabitants fled to Adrianople. One, Yanakis Apostolou, was killed. 

6. HIDIR-AGHA. — Apart from other ill-treatments inflicted on 
the inhabitants, the Turks burnt Petrou Tringa and Angelo Iltsiou 
alive, and also a woman. The inhabitants were expelled to Bulgaria. 

7. HAVARIS. — This village was completely destroyed during 
the first Balkan War, having been placed between two fires, and in 
front of the barbed wire fences. The inhabitants were expelled to 

(h.) Region of Hafsa. 

8. HAFSA. — At the time of the Turkish advance, the in- 
habitants suffered from many atrocities. Pope Anastasse, Vicar of 
the Archbishopric, and the teacher of the village were horribly 
tortured. Constantine loannou was massacred, after having been 
beaten unmercifully. Twenty villagers were beaten and imprisoned, 
six of whom were hanged in Adrianople on the 18th September, 1913, 
false accusations having been brought against them by the Turkish ele- 
ment. In October, 1914, the inhabitants of this village were expelled, 
the majority taking refuge in Greece, and the remainder dispersing 
themselves in Adrianople. 

9. HASKEITY. — At the time of the re-occupation, Ilias loan- 
nou and George Eliascou were killed. The Greek inhabitants were 
expelled, part of whom resorted to Greece and part to Bulgaria. 

10. ABALAR. — The inhabitants of this village fled to Greece. 
The damages sustained are enormous. Turkish emigrants from Bul- 
garia were installed in this village. 

11. OL-PASHA. — On there-occupation by the Turkish troops 
of the village, the inhabitants were driven away and resorted to Bul- 
garia, part of them managing to take refuge in Greece. 

12. OSMANLY. — The inhabitants were expelled on the re- 
occupation of the village, after a ransom had been taken of them 
amounting to Ltq.4,000. Many managed from Bulgaria to take 
refuge in Greece. At the time of the re-occupation, murders and 
rapes took })lace. 

IS. GUERDELI. — Tiie attacks on this village commenced on 
Easter Day (6th April) by firing and unprecedented brutalities, during 

vvliicli Diniitri Athanassiou and loaiini Georgiou were killed. The 
whole of the population were driven away and fled to Greece, with the 
exception of a few families, who resorted to the village of Kara-Halil, 
near Baba-Eski, of the diocese of Kirkilisse. 

14. HEIMBELER. — On the re-occupation of this village three 
inhabitants were killed and the remainder were expelled to Bulgaria, 
after having paid a ransom of about Ltq. 1,500. 

15. MOSULDJA. — On the re-occupation ten were killed, the 
inhabitants were ill-treated, and expelled to Bulgaria. The village 
was occupied by gipsies. 

(c-) Baba-Eski Region. 

16. BABA-ESKI. — Owing to the unbearable state of affairs, 
part of" the inhabitants fled to Greece. Their houses were occupied 
by Turks by order of the Government. Here also plunder and extor- 
tions took place on a vast scale. 

17. ALEPLI. — This village was one of the first to suffer. 
During the retreat of the Turkish army (during the Balkan War) 250 
houses were burnt and 109 inhabitants of both sexes and of all ages 
were murdered. Forty thousand kilos of corn were burnt as well as 
furniture, worth Ltq. 2,000. 

The troops rail away with fifty pairs of oxen, with carts and 2,000 
sheep. Under Bulgarian rule the villagers reconstructed their build- 
ings, when fresh persecutions broke out, the inhabitants were expelled 
and fled to Greece. At this time Stephanos Grivas and Titony Di- 
mitriou were slaughtered by the Turks. 

18. KOITMBOURLAR.— Turkish emigrants from Western 
Thrace forced the Christian inhabitants to flee to Greece and occupied 
the village. Soldiers and irregulars took a ])ride in trying to surpass 
each other in atrocities and plunder. Four men were murdered by the 

19. YENI-KEUY.— The same fate befell this village also, which 
fell into the hands of Turkish emigrants from Western Thrace, after 
its Christian inhabitants had fled to Greece. 

20. DOGANDJA.— To-day this village is inhabited by 
Turkish emigrants from the region • of Ortakeuy, its previous 101 
Christian families having fled to Greece. The Church and school had 
been already burnt down during the retreat of the Turkish troops, 
when three men, two women and four children were slaughtered. It 
was at that time that both soldiers and irregulars laid hands on 
personal property, consisting of 18,000 kilos of corn, 2,800 sheep, 382 
animals etc. 

21. NADIRLL— On the 4th of April, 1914, the Turks fell 
upon Theodossi Alexiou and murdered him, as well as Geo. Theodo- 
rou, Dem. Georgiou, and also others outside the village. They ex- 
torted <£310 from the peasants under pretext that they owed this 

amount to the Agricultural Bank ; also another £50 as road tax, 
although they, whip in hand, obliged them to work on road construc- 
tion. The sufferings and ill-treatment of the inhabitants of this 
village were such that they had no alternative left to them than taking 
refuge in Greece, whicli they did. The village is now occupied by 
Turkish emigrants from the neighbouring village of Tsifili. 

22. IMAM BAZAR.— On the 6th April, (old style) this village 
was also attacked, plunder and murder being the order of the day. 
The irregulars slaughtered Athanassi Anastassiou and George Grossi. 
Dimitri Evangelou died of fright. The inhabitants fled to Greece and 
the village was occupied by Turks. 

23. KOULELI.— Half of the inhabitants were expelled to Bul- 
garia, and the remainder sought refuge where they could. 

(cl.) Loule-Bourgas Region. 

24. LOULE-BOITIGAS.— Shortly after the re-occupation of 
Thrace by the Turks, three persons were massacred outside the small 
market town, the two belonging to Tiodosto, and one to Tourghout 
Bey. On the 3rd of April, 1915, George Tzimitras was arrested and 
cruelly beaten ; =£360 were taken away from him in the presence of 
the tax collector, Tzobanoglou, and the inspector of tithes, Abdourah- 
man Bey. On the next day the notable of tlie village, Theodores 
Kotzabasis, was massacred, and his two sons thrown into prison. On 
the 11th, the notables, Zacharias Kyriazides and loannis Ignatiadis, 
were ordered under pain of death to leave. On the 27th April, a 
systematic attack against the town commenced. Firing was heard 
every day in which officers. Government officials and irregulars equally 
took part. On the 3rd of July, Chrisoverghi, 35 years old, was 
massacred. On the 6th, Verghouhis Sfanghilis was wounded. On the 
27th, Sultan Effendi threatened to take Constantino Kyriazidhi's life. 
Thus, owing to constant and daily threats, ill-treatment and plunder- 
ing, man\^ families decided to quit the place. Their houses, fortunes 
and fields, were also seized by the Government and handed to the 
Moslem emigrants. 

25. AIVALI. — The retreating Turkish army (1912) murdered 
many of the inhabitants, among whom was Pope Lazaro, eighty years 
old. In 1914', the same methods were resorted to, to terrorise the 
inhabitants of this village. On the 4th February (o.s.), George Ca- 
rayannakis was assassinated, and although the assassin was known, the 
authorities arrested, under ])retext of investigation, all the notables of 
the village. Then, after the inhabitants being terrorised by Yousouf 
Bey of Loule-Bourgas, Djounni Effendi, chief surveyor, Osman Effendi, 
head of the Gendarmerie, and Eden Effendi, tax-collector, as well as 
by the gendarmes themselves and irregulars, they were forced to ex- 
j)atriate themselves. In March, 1914, there was not a single (ireek 
in the place ; all had sought refuge in (ireece. Their houses, fields, 
furniture, and in general the fortunes of these peasants were handed 
over to the Moslem emigrants of Greek and Serbian Macedonia. 

26. TOURGOUT EiEY.— This village was besieged on the 30th 
March (o.s.), by irregulars and the Turks of the district. On the 
31st, Pope Yannakis, priest of the village, was beaten. From the 1st 
to the 3rd April, the Churcli was profaned. Owing to these events 
the whole population fled to Greece. 

(b.) Villages Ceded to Bulgaria. 

By virtue of the last Turkish-Bulgarian Convention, nineteen 
villages situated bej^ond the Maritnza and inhabited by a purely Greek 
population, were ceded to Bulgaria. 

1. SCUTARI. — The Turkish Government laid hands in due time 
on forty houses, in which they installed an equal number of Turkisli 
families coming from Osman Bazar (Old Bulgaria). At the time of 
the re-occupation of this village by the Turks, the Greek population 
Constantinou, Apostolis Theoharis, and Athanassios Constantinou were 
massacred . 

2. PASHA MAHALE.— At the time of the re-occupation Pa- 
nayiotis Angelou, Sarantis Georgiou, Christos Athanassiou, Panayiotis 
Constantinou, Apostolis Theoharis, and Athanssios Constantinou were 
maltreated and beaten by the Turks. 

3. MIHALITSI. — The re-occupation of this village, was 
followed by all kinds of atrocities, murders and rape. 

4. FIKRLI. — The Greeks of this village shared the fate of their 
fellow-countrymen during its re-occupation by the Turks. 

5. DIMITRIKElfY.— At the time of the re-occupation of this 
locality, 500 sheep and 1,500 kilos of barley were pillaged. The in- 
habitants moreover, were forced to supi)ly 3,000 okes of bread daily. 
(An oke is equal to 2.82 lbs). The chief of the military post of the 
place, Hussein Effendi and the Albanian Moussa extorted from the 
villagers Ltq.500 besides forcing them to construct at their own ex- 
pense, barracks, using the material destined for the village school and 
the sum of Ltq.800 spent. 

6. KARA-BAGH. — At the time of the re-occupation the in- 
habitants of this village suffered from the usual atrocities, and Mar- 
garitis Angelou was killed. 

7. YALIA. — The usual atrocities took place here also. 

8. BARA. — Damage was done here also, more especially on the 
rape of cattle. 

9. BES-TEPE- — Great damages were done here during the re- 
occupation. The Greek school was turned into a stable. 

10. KOURMALI. — During the re-occupation, Christos loannou, 
Petros Ghalipis, Yordan Evangelou, and Yiovanis Constantinou, were 
murdered. Bastinados were inflicted and great damage caused. 

11. SARIYER. — The damages occasioned in this village amount 
to a considerable sum of money. 

12. BEKTESSIDES. — Besides damages and the loss in cattle and 
corn, the village church was i)illaged, not even the offerings being 

13. KIZIA. — On the resumption of the Balkan War this village 
was completely destroyed. Houses, schools and churches were burnt, 
or razed to the very foundations. Turkish Comitadjis seized Cons- 
tantine, the mouhtar of the village, and after subjecting him to 
various tortures, extracted all his teeth and threw him in a well. 
Sixteen families took refuge in Greece on account of the repeated 
attacks to which they were exposed from the Turks of the vicinity. 
This took place in February, 1914. 

14. TCHORIK-KEUY. — This fine and rich village, being placed 
during the Balkan War between two fires, suffered tremendously in 
consequence. Its inhabitants were turned out and denuded of every- 
thing. Many of them were slain while the women and girls were 
raped. Twenty-five peasants were thrown into the Maritza by the 
Bulgarians. Although reconstructed after the Balkan War, the village, 
at the time of its re-occupation, again suffered from invaders. Gregori 
Sotiriou, Yannakis Nicolaou, and Constantine Dimitriou, were mas- 

15. DEMIRDES. — The Arab soldiers that re-occupied this 
village commited no end of atrocities against its population. Young 
girls were raped and men were massacred. Several Greeks sought 
refuge in Greece in March, 1914. 

16. BOSNOCHORI. — Demitrios Vassiglou, Apostolos Antoniou, 
and Jean Nicolaou, were killed at the time of the re-occupation of the 
village. Turks from Ahir-Keuy carried away the daughter and 
daughter-in-law of Evangelos Hadji Nicolaou. ' 

17. KARA-AGATCH. — At the time of the re-occupation of this 
locality its inhabitants suffered equally from the hands of the advanc- 
ing Turks, as from those of the retreating Bulgarians. On the last 
day of the retreat the latter arrested forty-five of its inhabitants whom 
they bound two by two and drowned them in the Maridja, one only 
survived to tell the story, and that is Pandeli of Kiyik. 

18. MOUSTAFA-PASHA.— This small village containing a 
flourishing Greek comnmnity, with a fine Church and Schools, suffered 
also during the war. 

19. MARRASSIA. — This village was completely destroyed 
during the Balkan W^ar. 

The Greek element in the town of Adrianople, the seat of the 
diocese, apart from the material losses it sustained through requisitions 
and commercial restrictions, suffered further from disastrous fire after 
the re-occupation during which the entire Greek quarters including 
four churciies and a school were burnt down. 

The (iovernment officials, who went to the rescue, instead of 
helping to extinguish the fire, threw inflammable substances into it. 

What was striking was the attitude of the local authorities towards 
the victims of the fire, so that many were obliged to leave the country, 
to try and earn a living elsewhere. 




This Diocese, numbering twelve Communities and containing 
25,427 inliabitants, was the first to feel the evils of Bulgarian Ad- 
ministration so tliat the whole of the Greek population of the Diocese 
rejoiced at the news of the approaching re-occupation of Thrace by 
the Turks. The Cireek population even felt relief at the idea of the 
return of the Turkish Administration. But the deception was a cruel 
one. Bands comj^osed of the lowest and basest elements of the popu- 
lation invaded the diocese and commited the worst acts of barbarism 
and cruelty under the very eyes and to the great delight of the chiefs 
of the I'urkish regular troops. 

Later on, the Civil Administration itself, when once it had been 
officially established, acted upon a premediated and clearly set forth 
progrannne and started tlie systematic extermination of the Greek 
element until tlie entire Greek communities were driven out. 

1. KOURDUE.— On the 25th March (o.s.), 1913, some of the 
inhabitants of this locality were deported to Bulgaria, among whom 
were the Vicar, George Dionyssiou and his family. On the 27th of 
the same month armed bands of Turkish irregulars entered the village, 
and in order to scare the peasants stripi)ed the women of their clothes 
and raped some of them. The village was terrorised by means of all 
communication being cut-off for some days with the neighbouring 
villages. On the 1st of April, George Diogenous, Christos Stylianou, 
and Nicolaos Christou were murdered by the Turks, between Scopos 
and Kouroudere. The same day the village was plundered and the 
terrified Christian inhabitants took to the mountains, while on the 
5th the entire population was obliged to expatriate itself. 

2. KOITROUNDERE, 3. ERVARION.— Following on all 
sorts of persecution, the inhabitants of both these villages emigrated 
in April, 1914. 

4. Y AND JICLAR.— Towards the e-d of March, owing to the 
attitude of Turkish emigrants and inhabitants of the neighbouring 
village, the Greek population was obliged to expatriate itself. 

5. SCOPOS. — The Turkish re-occupation caused this small town 
to suffer cruelly. On the 17th of July, 1913, soldiers and Turkish 
emigrants carried away the cattle, the agricultural produce, furniture 
and the carriages of the inhabitants. On the 9th of March, 1914, 

Halvadji, a petty merchant, and George Lampi, were massacred by the 
Turks close to the village of Kurdere, and on the 13th of the same 
month, the sub-Governor (mudir) levied heavy contributions on the 
inhabitants in support of the Turkish fleet ; also for the establish- 
ment of a telephone, the furnishing of the gendarmerie post, the crea- 
tion of a municipal garden, and the repairing of the roads. On the 
24th of April of the same year, seven of the notables of the town were 
arrested and thrown into the prison of Adrianople. Their names are 
Simos Simopoulos, Archimides Iconomidis, Yianacos Illioglous, Euri- 
pidis Hadji Anestis, Leonidas Kiradjoglous, Alexandros Tianilis, and 
Polthronis Skiougenis. On the 21st September a subscription of 
Ltq. 1,000, in favour of the Red Crescent and the National Defence 
Committee, was imposed upon the inhabitants. 

On the 5th of September, 1915, the town was besieged by the 
Turkish Gendarmes and 200 other Turks, commanded by the ex-chief 
of the Gendarmerie of Ismidt, Yussuf Bey. No one was allowed to 
leave the town and orders were given to the inhabitants to make ready 
for their departure. On the following day, Simos Simopoulos, a 
teacher, was arrested and carried away by two Turkish emigrants, 
belonging to Scopo, who killed him on the road to Yenna, at a distance 
of a quarter of an hour from the town. This assassination was 
followed by that of Pope Kyriacos Constantopoulos, who was thrown 
into an unhealthy dungeon, left /to languish in it for five whole days 
and nights, without food or water, while subjected to unheard of 

For five long days the Turkish functionaries, together with the 
population, gave themselves up to a veritable orgy of cruelty against 
the Greeks, whom they further stripped of Ltq. 3, 000. On the 10th 
September of the same year the deportation of the inhabitants began. 
Aristodhimos Constantopoulos (teacher), Zaphirios Zaphiriades (apothe- 
cary), Theodoros Cokalas (merchant), FelojMdas Vavazanides (teacher), 
and Pope Kyriacos, were arrested and shared the same fate as that 
of unfortunate Simopoulos with the only difference that they were 
buried alive, after being forced to dig themselves their own graves. 

6. SKEPAwSTOS.— At the beginning of the year 1914, the Turks 
set to work systematically to share the Christian population of this 
locality. Flogging, theft and plunder were in the order of the day. 
In March, 1914, about five hundred Macedonian Turks surrounded the 
town and demanded the immediate deportation of its inhabitants. 

On September, 1914, the sub-Governor (mudir), wSarakin Tahsim 
Bey, forced the peasants to hand over to him 40,000 okes of corn, 
which he had distributed among the Turkish immigrants at Viza. 
Between the period of the re-occupation and deportation of the inha- 
bitants no less than fourteen of its numbers were savagely done to 
death in the fields, and Dimitri S. Loghothetis met with his death 
at Viza, the seat of the sub-Governor of Viza. In September, 1915, 
the inhabitants, after being stripped of all they jwssessed, were ex- 
patriated, and after a four days' march reached Heraclea, whence the 
majority crossed over to the Asiatic coast in boats, and settled down 
in Balli Kesser, and Ada Bazar. 


7. SKOPELOS. — Here also the Greeks had been exposed, ever 
since the re-occupation of the village to the same dangers and persecu- 
tions from the Turkish emigrants as elsewhere ; the same misfortunes 
now befell them and they were expelled finally in 1915. 

8^. PETRA. — A repetition of the same methods was carried out 
here. In 1914, Turkish emigrants surrounded the village, and by 
putting pressure on its inhabitants forced them to leave. In April, 
the staff of tlie Agricultural Bank seized the cattle of all the peasants 
and in Sejitember, 1915, the inhabitants were dispersed. 

The communities that escaped deportation nevertheless suffered 
from all the kinds of persecution and unprecedented tyranny at the 
hands of the Moslem Albanian, Ilaidar Bey, Governor of Kirk-Klisse, 
and those under him. 

The terrorism exercised on the Greek Communities was system- 
atic and incessant so that their escape from total deportation was 
little short of a miracle. 

A perfect reign of terror was inaugurated at Kirk-Klisse during 
the retreat of the Bulgarians and the return of the Turks, the former 
threatening the inhabitants with a wholesale massacre, while the latter 
plundered and pillaged them. On the return of the Moslem refugees 
who found that their dwellings had been destroyed by the Bulgarians, 
they promptly approj)riated those belonging to the Greeks, under the 
indifferent eyes of the Local Authorities. 

During the European War the town of Kirk-Klisse was made an 
important objective by the young Turks, which they attempted by a 
thousand ways to destroy. 

On the 18th of March, 1914, S50 Turkish refugee families esta- 
blished themselves in Yenna, and started to oppress ^he Christiaa 
population. On the 4th of April of the same year officials claimed 
payment within twenty-four hours of all debts towards the Govern- 
ment. The collectors of the Agriciiltural Bank exacted the payment 
of Ltq. 1,700, out of which Ltq.800 were due by the Bulgarian emi- 
grants. The Chapel of the "Life-giving Fountain" (Zoodhohos Pigi) 
was desecrated. Constantine Michail was deported with his family 
and further murders committed. 

In general, this borough was particularly terrorised. Manifestoes 
with the heading "The President of the Committee" were thrown into 
the houses. One of these read as follows : "Either you leave this 
place, or we massacre you all. By the end of the week none of you 
muist be found here. If on our return we find you here, it will be 
at your peril. You must understand this." These manifestoes bore 
the mark of the Crescent, with the inscription : "Padichahim tchoc 
yasha" (Long live the Sultan). 


9. BOUNAR HISSAR.— On the 1st April, 1910, all the cattle 
were stolen by Albanian Turks. On the 11th of the same month, 
the Christian inhabitants were beaten and otherwise maltreated by 
order of the sub-Governor (mudir), under the charge of having refused 
to accommodate Turkish emigrants. 

The inhabitants of the Community of Kara-Halil, after enduring 
savage attacks on the part of the Turks of the vicinity were obliged 
to quit their abodes and scatter about in Kirk-Klisse. It was under 
the most perilous conditions that they managed later on to return to 
their homes. 



This Diocese, comprising in all fifty-three Communities, with a 
great population numbering 51,236 souls, witnessed all the horrors of 
the Balkan War, and suffered from all the atrocities committed by the 
Bulgarian regulars and irregulars during their retreat, as well as the 
cruelties practised during the re-occupation by Turkish troops. The 
Laze volunteer corps during their retreat plundered and destroyed the 
villages of Tartar-Keuy, Karaskly, Karakasim, Voulgar-Keuy, Eski- 
Keuy and Kornofolka, and others. The men of the battalions after 
having burnt the half of Iberes monastery, in this last village, 
murdered the Abbot, Father Porphyros and another one of the name 
of Neophitos. 

An even worse fate awaited the diocese at the time of its re-occu- 
pation by the Turks. In all the villages atrocities were committed. 
Moslems occupied the dwellings of the Christians ; fields were 
confiscated ; men were forced to work on the public roads, and 
cultivate the earth for the benefit of the Turkish refugees ; the cattle 
were carried away. Murders also were rife. 

About the end of March, 1914, Turks from the village of Kara- 
Klisse, evacuated by the Bulgarians, entered the grocer's shop of Di- 
mitri Katsica, attacked and wounded him, killed his relation, Stavro 
Nerandji, and fired repeatedly at Pope Christophoros without success. 
On the 31st of March of the same year, Dimitri loannou, a young 
man seventeen years old, was killed by the Turkish emigrants, in the 
village of Tokma-Keuy. Towards the middle of the month of April, 
the Turks nmrdered the notable of the village Koufovouno, of the name 
of Adam. They also murdered the barber from Didimotica, Christos. 
Adam's sons, respectively twenty and twentj'^-two years old, were 
carried away, and murdered, "^rhe throat of the one was cut while the 


other had his abdomen cut open, on the 21st April, close by the 
village at a spot called Koumia. 

The atrocities committed in the villages of Skourtohori, Tsompali 
and Koufovouni, were of a ferocious nature. In the villages of Azalli 
(destroyed of late), Karakasim (half burnt), and Tartar-Keuy (severely 
damaged), emigrants, Pomaks and Albanians were established, with 
the result that the Greek element inhabiting these localities for the 
greater part crossed over into Greece through Dedeagatch. This took 
place also in the village of Maritza, and nearly all the Greek villages 
that were handed over to the Bulgarians. 

In accordance with the Turkish-Bulgarian treaties all the villages 
beyond the Maritza, as also four on the left bank of the river, i.e. 
Kioupli, Psathades, Zaloupaki, and Kousti were ceded to Bulgaria, in 
consequence of which the Greek inhabitants of these localities suffered 
most frightfully in every respect. Soufli region was entirely evacuated, 
and the Demotica one was partly abandoned. The Bulgarian Govern- 
ment seized the Churches and Schools and tlie remaining Greek in- 
habitants were subjected to dire persecution in order to frighten them 
into changing their feelings of nationality. 

The number of villages on this side of the Maritza and on the 
Turkish territory is sixteen. 

(ct.) Villages whose inhabitants were expelled before 1914. 

1. MEGA ZALOIFI.— At the time of the re-occupation this 
village suffered severely. About 130 inhabitants were killed. Five- 
sixths of its population were forced to seek refuge in Bulgaria. 

2. ASLAM. — Four-fifths of its inhabitants resorted both to 
Greece and Bulgaria. 

3. SARAPLAR, 4. KARAKASIM, and 5. AZATLL— Driven 
out of the village, their inhabitants went over to Bulgaria. At the 
time of re-occui)ation, seventy were killed. 

{h.) Villages whose inhabitants were displaced 
during the European War. 

Karaile, Kourti, Karaindja, Pasha Yenidje, Louli, Yeaoup, Tsali, 
Eskikeuy, Kayakli, Tchiflikaki, and Dogandji. The inhabitants of 
these villages (coming under the governorship of Makra Yefira) were 
dispersed in September, 1915, and spread about over the district of 




This diocese is divided into two parts — those of Enos and Dede- 
agatcli. It comprises seventeen communities and has a population of 
10,057 Greeks. The disturbances created by the Balkan War brought 
about a deplorable state of affairs in this locality. Under the rule, 
for a little over one ^^ear, of no less than five authorities (Turkish Co- 
mitadjis, Bulgarian, Hellenic, Autonomous Administration, and again 
Bulgarian as regards the district of Dedeagatch and Turkish for that 
of Enos) the inhabitants of this diocese were compelled to put up with 
all kinds of terrible experiences while striving hard to safeguard their 
lives and honour. 

The activity displayed by the Bulgarian occupation combined with 
a systematic anti-Greek policy, particularly after the re-occupation, 
were such as to bring about at last a complete nationat decline of the 
Greeks. The Bulgarians did not lack methods of terrifying the people. 
Reasons of a geographical, military and ethnological nature in this 
important region concurred for the maintenance of a fixed camp, with- 
drew these lands for a certain time, from Bulgarian rule. But when 
once the Bulgarians succeeded in putting their foot once more in the 
town of Dedeagatch, they gave way without restraint to their feelings 
of fanaticism against everything that was Greek, committing the most 
frightful atrocities against its Greek population. Churches were dese- 
crated, schools were closed, shops were plundered, trade came to a 
standstill, economical life lost its vitality, and as a crowning act of 
Bulgarism, a price was put on the head of the Metropolitan of Enos, 
a man who had been instrumental in saving the lives of many thousand 
Bulgarians at the time of the Autonomous Administration from the 
revengeful hands of the Turks. 

At the present moment not a single Greek is to be found in the 
town and district of Dedeagatch, most of them having for one reason 
or the other, been obliged to emigrate to Greece. 

It is true that the destruction of this district had already begun 
at the time of the retreat of the Turkish troops, when the Army of 
General Yaver Pasha burnt the village of Roumdloulis, dispersed its 
inhabitants and i)lundered the market of Serres, accompanied by 
murder. This destruction was, however, completed under tiie Bul- 
garian rule. 

At the time of the re-occupation of Thrace the small district of 
Enos suffered at the hands of the Turks. Many of the inhabitants 


were unmercifully beaten ; others were unjustly thrown into prison, 
and only released after the . energetic steps taken in this matter by the 

Shortly after, the usual deportation of all the Greek inhabitants 
of the district began. 

(«) Persecutions in 1914. 

1. AHIR KEUY. — Two murders were committed at the time 
of the re-occupation. In 1914, the village sustained three successive 
attacks from the Turkish bands, and was completely plundered. Five 
inhabitants died through ill-treatment. The remainder abandoned 
the village, took refuge in that of Karpouli, whence they were ex- 
pelled to Greece (13th June, 1914), after being previously beaten and 
robbed by the Custom House Authorities of all their savings. 

time (April, 1914), the inhabitants of the villages were surrounded by 
Turkish bands, who fired on them, and forced them to take refuge at 
Enos, whence they were expelled to Greece, being previously robbed 
of everything. Among the deported was the head of the jjatriarchal 
Monastery of St. Athanass Tchantiri, Pope Yoachim, who was beaten 
on more than one occasion. Constantine loannou, of the village of 
Kemerly, was hanged. 

5. DOUKIENI. — After a protracted siege, followed by i)lunder, 
the inhabitants of this locality shared the same fate as those of other 
villages. Four were killed : Zafiris Angelos, and Nicolaos Zafiriades 
and their workman Athanassios. 

6. AGIASMA. — This village was besieged and forced to pay a 
ransom. The priest of the village was obliged to pay a sum of money 
to the aggressors, who carried away two girls of the village of Stefa- 
naki, along with the school-mistress, whom they released after 
receiving Ltq.200. Owing to repeated attacks, followed by plunder- 
ing, the inhabitants sought refuge in Greece. 

7. KOZKORI. — For similar reasons the Greek population of this 
place also emigrated to other parts. It was subsequently occupied by 
Turkish emigrants, which was generally the case with the remainder 
of the villages that were evacuated. 

(^) Deportation during the European War. 

8. AMIGDALIA and 9. MAISTR OS. —Before even they 
■were officially notified by the Government to quit, the inhabitants in 
order to escape persecution and robbery by the Turks, sought refuge 
in the monasteries of Skalotis and Aghios Pandeleimona. On their 
return sometime later on, they were again driven out (April, 1915) 
within three hours, the inhj^bitants of Amigdalia settling down in 


the village o£ Pesait, those of Maistros resorting to Kastritsa. Two 
shepherds of Achileos Niotis, from Maistros, by name Christos and 
Bozicos, as well as two others of Amigdalia, were murdered. 

10. ENOS. — Both during the Balkan and European wars this 
town was made the particular objective by Government officials and its 
Moslem inhabitants, as being a place of special importance from which 
the Greek element should be deported. This scheme was successfully 
carried out in August, 1915, when the inhabitants were expelled to 
Malgara. Out of a total of seventeen churches, fifteen were des- 
troyed. The library containing 1,900 volumes was pillaged. The 
monastery of Skalotis was burnt, and those of Aghios Panteleimon and 
Tsandiri completely demolished. 

Thus was brought about the destruction of that Diocese which 
had been officially planned and carried out by the Turks, as proved 
by the deposition of the Chief of Police of Enos, Yussuf Zia Bey. 
The revelations, contained in a letter addressed by Zia Bey to the 
French Consul of Callipoli, of which we give a translation of the 
exact copy, bring to light considerable important facts. 

"To His Excellency, 
The French Consul, 
at Gallipoli. 

*'I, the undersgned. Chief of Police of Enos, was arrested through 
calumny brought against me by the sub-governor of Gallipoli and 
while under an escort of gendarmes like a criminal, succeeded in 
making my escape and taking refuge in the Austrian Consulate oi 
tliis city. 

Looking upon you as representing a great Protecting Power cf 
the Albanians, I hope you will do what is due to me. My arrest 
is due to personal reasons of the Caimacliam who, wishing to revenge 
himself on me, owing to my conscientious attitude, accused me of 
having extorted money from different persons. No sooner had I 
taken refuge in the Austrian Consulate, than the Governor of Galli- 
poli sent the Chief of Police to persuade me to go to his Residence. 
I then declared in the presence of witnesses, that of late, acts of 
pillage and oppression have been committed against the Christians ; 
that whole villages are evacuated at the instigation and by order of 
the present Government and that this is well known to all. I con- 
sider it to be expedient to give you a brief statement of the events 
that took place at Enos. 

I went to Enos on the 9th of May, 1914. As soon as the Cai- 
macham (Governor) saw me he said to me : 'Tlie Greeks here are pro- 
Hellenes, so take care.' I found out, however, during the Bulga- 
rian occupation, that the Greeks protected the Turks. 

Petitions from all (luarters were addressed to the Caimacham, who 
took no notice of them wliatsoever. Instead of which he sent to the 
spot the I/ieutenant of the gendarmerie a few days ago, who recom- 
mended stricter measures to these bands ; he returned to Enos. He 
personally supervised the embarkation by force of the inhabitants of 


the village Kodja-ali on sailing vesseis, at Dracodina, and sent them 
to Samothrace after confiscating their cattle and carts. And while 
the whole of the district of Enos was being plundered, and its in- 
habitants deported, he sent false telegrams to the Government, to 
the civil prefecture and inspection, assuring them that order had 
been established, that no incident had taken place, and that only the 
inhabitants of the village Kodja-Ali had secretly disappeared ! At 
that time the Mutasserif arrived at the village of Kiz Kapou of Kes- 
sani. Scarcely did the news reach the Caimacham, than he hastened 
to meet him, and having received instructions he returned. 

Twenty inhabitants of Keshan, fifty of Ipsela, and some of Enos 
were expelled, in spite of their having been pardoned by amnesty. 
The inhabitants of Tchelebi Keuy were also exiled. 

At Enos there was a Greek, Ottoman Odysseus by name, who had, 
during the Bulgarian occupation, previously shown protection to many 
Moslems, and who did much to encourage the Christians to return to 
their villages. The Caimacham sought a pretext to obtain his ex- 
pulsion. It came about like this : one day two girls whose parents 
Odysseus protected during the Bulgarian occupation, went to his house. 
When the Caimacham got to know of it, he incited the Moslems to 
demonstrate against Odysseus, who was soon after arrested, imprisoned 
and expelled the next day. 

The delegate of the Greek Patriarchate Joachim was not allowed 
to go to the village of Kodja Ali, lest he should see the destroyed 

All telegrams, dealing with different matters, from the people and 
the vicar, were stopped by the Caimacham, who refused to let them 
be dispatched. 

A gendarmerie detachment was sent against these bands, and 
succeeded in dispersing them, which encouraged the Christians to re- 
turn to their homes. The Caimacham on hearing of this, sent for the 
Chief of the Gendarmerie, and as a result of his interview with him, 
the bands renewed their exploits. The people and the vicar com- 
plained, but the Caimacham paid no attention to those complaints. 
Before I reached Enos, twelve poor people came from Ipsala, in search 
of work ; they put up at a monastery. 

The Caimacham was in the habit of giving orders for certain in- 
dividuals to be invited to see him and requesting them to subscribe to 
a fund for the erection of a Mosque destroyed by the Bulgarians. 
Whoever did not give to the fund was threatened with exile. The 
money thus collected is still in the hands of the Caimacham. Of late, 
however, strict orders were issued, in consequence of which the Cai- 
macham found himself in a difficult position, and in order to save him- 
self, brings these false charges against me. Such is the state of the 
Young Turk Government, who deceived France and obtained loans, 
with the object, or so they declared, of effecting reforms. 

I beg you to do the necessary to save me. 

In the Austrian Consulate, this 24th of May, 1914." 

(Signed) youssouf-zia. 

17 C 

The Moslem population of this district is equally to blame, for 
instead of any recognition of the protection they received at the hands 
of the Bishop of Enos durhig the Bulgarian occupation, they proceeded 
to attack and destroy everything that was Greek, not stopping even 
at the few tilings still remaining in the Bishopric that had escaped 
Bulgarian rape. By their shameful conduct the Turks proved that 
they had completely forgotten that the Central Government had, 
through the Ministry of Justice, addressed a letter under date of the 
1st July, 1329 (1913), in whi9h they expressed their thanks to this 
same Bishop of Enos, for his generous attitude shown throughout ; 
the protection given by him to the life, honour and fortunes of no less 
than 1,000 Moslems, government officials and others, who sought it. 
They at the same time forgot that his conduct had been rewarded by 
conferring upon him a highly valuable Turkish decoration. 



This diocese, composed of eighteen communities and containing a 
population of 16,735 souls, suffered also from the consequences of the 
first Balkan War, and witnessed under the few months of the Bulga- 
rian regime, the desolation of ten farms (tchifliks) whose inhabitants 
although exclusively Greeks, were forced by the authorities during the 
occupation to emigrate into Bulgaria. The re-occupation of Thrace 
rendered still worse the situation of the remaining Greeks. The 
Government officials, acting upon tlie elaborated Young Turk pro- 
gramme set to work from the very outset, to annihilate the population 
of this district. 

There was no security in the country, in consequence of which 
the Greeks dared not venture out to cultivate their lands, or manufac- 
ture charcoal. The inhabitants of all communities were forced to cut 
wood and carry stones for the reconstruction of the buildings and 
houses belonging to the Turks and destroj'^ed by the Bulgarians. 
Moreover, they were frequently called upon to pay contributions, 
especially for the establishment of telephonic communications between 
Chorlou and the surrounding villages, so that the existence of the 
Christians became problematic. 

1. CHORLOl . — In October, 1913, strict domiciliary searches 
were ordered, during which the officials appointed for the purpose, 
carried away whatever they found in double, in the way of clothes, 
furniture, etc., and distributed tliem to the Turks. 

The parish schools were requisitioned and turned into military 


offices, notwithstanding the fact that there were many more buildings, 
both private and public, suitable for the requirements of the army. 
The fanaticism of the Turks against the Greek element was notorious, 
and although at first it was displayed by swearing at its religion, later 
on it took more serious proportions, when they boycotted trade and 
finance to which they gave a deadly blow. All this contributed 
largely to the emigration into Greece. 

2. STRANGI A. —Towards the end of March, 1014, more than 
a hundred Circassians came to Strangia. They and otlier Turks spread 
alarming reports about the fate awaiting the Greek inhabitants. 

During Passion Holy Week, cattle raping, plunders and fires took 
place. Many inhabitants were unmercifully beaten, five of whom died 
of wounds received. The latter were workmen in the service of a 
timber merchant, Direkly by name. In the evening of Saturday of 
the same week, the police and gendarmerie convened a meeting of the 
Elders and ordered them to evacuate their houses to accommodate 
Turkish emigrants. On Easter Monday a general deportation began, 
Miss Aspassia Constantinides was an eye-witness, on the 14th April, 
1914 : 

"On Easter Monday, at 10 in the morning, a corporal and his 
gendarmes, with drawn swords, forced them by brutal methods to 
close their shops. They ordered 150 families to leave on the morrow, 
and the remainder the day after. When a young man asked 'Why 
must we leave ?' he was unmercifully thrashed. Subsequently they 
visited the different quarters of the village accompanied by Turkish 
emigrants, who stoned the Christian houses, saying 'either be gone, 
or we shall kill you, you swine of infidels.' The streets were full of 
Turkish emigrants who appropriated the hens, cattle and eatables they 
found in the shops. On Tuesday the village Elders were called to 
the Police station. There the corporal addressed them, saying : 'To- 
morrow you will give me the Ltq.800 you collected from the fountains,' 
and on their answering that they had deposited the money in the 
Bank of Constantinople, the corporal, after first belabouring them, 
searched cheir pockets, took away their watches and whatever else 
they possessed and then handed them over to tlie Gendarmerie. They 
were then stripped of their clothes, imi)risoned, and stones and dirt 
thrown at them tiirough the window. The corporal meanwhile seni; 
to their houses claiming I>tq.20 as a ransom. Their wives gave from 
Ltq.5 to 7 each, and at two o'clock in the morning they were set free 
and escorted to their houses by gendarmes. On Wednesday at 5 
o'clock, loud cries were heard. It was reported that Corporal Ismail, 
an Arab, accompanied by a hundred Turkish emigrants, entered the 
houses with drawn swords, and fell upon the peasants, calling them 
by every foul name of swine and infidels. Then I noticed that the 
carts belonging to the Turkish immigrants were waiting before the 
doors of the peasants' houses. In front of each door there were ten 
immigrants and a cart with its driver, who claimed Ltq.4 in advance 
for his fare. 

"It is worthy of notice that the Turkish immigrants entered the 
houses and took for themselves whatever they required in the shape 


of clotliing, kitchen utensils, etc., and then stoned us from our owil 
houses, in which they had estabUshed themselves. The train was com- 
posed of 250 carts belonging to the villages, followed by 500 carts 
belonging to the Turkisli immigrants. After going along for a long 
time, we noticed six gendarmes and about 150 horsemen coming to- 
wards us. They arrested the Elders and conducted them to the Police 
station in order to make them pay the tax over again. After un- 
mercifully beating them and dragging them along like beasts, they 
made them sign a document — contents unknown — and threatening 
them with their revolvers, extorted <£lO each from the three and £S 
to £5 from the remainder of the Elders. 

•'After two hours' march we reached a deep and narrow ravine 
where we found Corporal Ismail with a number, of immigrants, 
apparently waiting for us. As soon as he saw us, he ordered our 
drivers to stoj), and dragging the women out of the carts beat them 
savagely. They snatched the earrings the women wore and in so 
doing cut their ears ; they forced them to undress in order to get 
at the necklaces they wore, and often tore them off their necks with 
such violence tliat in one instance a woman's throat was cut, causing 
the blood to flow in torrents. They also pulled off the hair of the 
young girls. From one widow alone they took away jewelry worth 
<£150 in gold. From the wife of the cashier of the Church, they 
took away twelve Greek shares and two preference shares worth .£200. 
These she had hidden under the clothes of her baby, forty days old. 
At last my turn came, and I was robbed of £l7 I had on me. 

"They ran away with an image of St. George in silver, which 
an old woman wore. No one, whether male or female, old or young, 
was spared ; all were searched and robbed. 

"Towards evening we reached a valley, and while the police were 
actively engaged in searching the pockets of every one, the Turkish 
immigrants, fell upon and carried away the luggage of the villagers. 
From the cart I was in, they took away the mattresses, sewing- 
macliine, and clothes of a poor girl, besides our bread and food and 
the small basket which contained some medicine we had managed to 
take away with us. We passed the night in great trepidation, but 
as it was, nothing happened. We started again on Thursday at five 
in the morning, and at three in the afternoon, after undergoing a 
further search. Our jjeasants would have defended themselves, were 
it not the cart-drivers were immigrants, besides which each one was 
accompanied by two well-armed men. On Thursday night we slept 
on the ground without any covering at all. At eleven o'clock on 
Friday morning, the two gendarmes, who had stripped us of everytliing 
on the i)revious day, claimed as a reward five piastres per cart for 
having escorted us safely to the frontier of Heraclea. 

"At Heraclea 200 families were embarked on board tlie S.S. 
Markella ; but the greater i)art of their luggage was stolen by the 
gendarmes of Heraclea and stored in a Turkish Coffee House." 

Bands of well-armed Moslem Lazis travelled all over these villages 


spreading terror among them, and committed all kinds cf rape. The 
authorities declared that they were incapable of doing anything to 
stop it. The evacuation of Strandja was followed by the emigration 
from the above-mentioned villages. The inhabitants of Askos, in a 
state of terrorism, sought shelter in Karadjakeuy, whence they were 
deported by the Mudir to Silivria. The peasants of Karadjakeuy and 
Belgrade at once followed suit. But after a short time the inhabitants 
of the last two villages were persuaded to return home. Tlicse of 
Astaco, along with the other families, went over to Greece. 

6. KERM ANION.— In the beginning of April, 1914, hundreds 
of Turkish immigrants swarmed to this place, some of them under 
pretence of being Secretaries of Talaat. The Minister of Interior 
advised the peasants to emigrate, and leave the church they were 
building unfinished, as that would be turned into a mosque. Later 
on, sixty Turkish families established themselves in the village, 
behaving with great severity to the Christians, and even theatening 
their lives. On the 9th of April, George Paraschos, and on the 1st 
of June, Vladeis Christou Tantaras, both shepherds, were murdered. 
These sixty families lived at the ex])e:ise of the Christian population, 
and as the latter could not go out into their fields owing to the in- 
security of the })lace, starvation stared them in the face. Towards 
the end of October, 1914, the Christians were all expelled to Greece. 


This Diocese with a population of 28,783 souls, divided into 
twenty-five Communities, experienced great tribulation as far back as 

Apart from the former great lasses sustained under the Bulga- 
rian regime in the form of requisitioning of cattle, the pillage of corn 
and burning of the Bishopric, together with its furniture and library, 
this district was greatly damaged during the retreat of the Turks and 
their re-occupation of Thrace, when six churches, one school, 624 
houses and shops were burnt, and 186 inhabitants of various commu- 
nities murdered. Renewed plunder followed, in which the Turkisli 
officials took a prominent part under pretext of finding out what goods 
were taken by the Christians from the Turks, so that they managed 
to strip the Christian population completely of their property. 


(«) Pesecution in 1914. 

Slowly and by degrees the programme of the Young Turks was 
carried out ; it was inaugurated by a complete commercial boycott, 
intercourse between the villages of the six districts being strictly pro- 
hibited. This kept the inhabitants in a constant anguish of unrest, 
who did not even know what was taking place in their immediate 
vicinity. This boycott was followed by gangs of Turko- Albanians who 
besieged the villages, firing and attacking by night, carrying off the 
cattle and threatening continually the expulsion of the Christians from 
their houses and shops, followed by the accommodation of Turkish 
emigrants in them. 

This programme was carried out under the direction of Eyoub 
Sabri, sub-governor of Vise (Editor of the Savin papers Top, Silah, 
and Sjuirhiou, published formerly in Salonica and Monastir), assisted 
by his brother Hoursef Bey, and Ghiassari of Media, who had no other 
object in view than the compulsory evacuation of the Christians of 
this region. 

They were successful in their aim. The community of Magrio- 
tissa, harassed by the repeated attacks, murders, plunders, etc., against 
the Greek element, was the first to give the signal for emigration. 
The villages were all quitted on the 17th of March, 1914. The other 
villages, i.e. Hasvouga, Mousselim, Topdiikeuy, Sarai, Kavak, Yiovali, 
Tsongara, Aghios Georgios, Tsaka, Aghios loannis, Krionero, followed 
suit (April 1914). 

The majority of the deported Christians escorted to Heraclea, 
embarked for Greece. 

This district had given refuge to the multitudes of Christians 
fleeing from the ferocity of the Young Turks. Priests, notables, and 
muhtars (municipal representatives) were heard relating, in the pre- 
sence cf the Governor and the Chief of the Gendarmerie of Heraclea, 
the endless tortures and persecutions to which they had been subjected, 
declaring that it was the governors, sub-governors, gendarmes and 
their acolytes that had robbed them of their fortunes and expelled them, 
and that it was only in order to save their lives that they were obliged 
to give up the homes they had inhabited for centuries ; further that 
if the Government which refused to give them the protection solicited 
would now guarantee their safety, they were prepared to return to 
their homes. 

This declaration, repeated by all the inhabitants of the various 
districts, was not taken into consideration, and consequently, the un- 
happy emigrants from the villages of Avo loanni Serayio, Kavak, 
Tshakli, Ayio Georgio, and Tsongara, were forced to embark and leave. 
The scenes that attended their departure were simply heartrending. 
•The hesitating Christians, deeply attached to their soil, did all they 
could to ap})ease the savageness of the Gendarmes, who with tlie butt- 
ends of tlieir rifles and with sticks and wiiips, drove them towards the 
shore. Women clasping des])erately tlieir new-born babes in their 
arms, and young girls frightened out of their wits, were savagely 
driven along by tlieir savage persecutors. An old woman managed to 


slip away unnoticed by the gendarmes and reported to the Bishopric 
that the luggage of the emigrants was thrown out of the carts, that 
women and girls were violated. Also the emigrants appealed to their 
Christian brethren of Heraclea to hasten to the spot, and with their 
own hands "put their wives and daughters to death,^^ rather than see 
them dishonoured in their presence. In support of her statement, she 
produced a young girl of fourteen who accompanied her, nlio bore 
witness to the fact, lender even still worse conditions were the in- 
habitants of the following villages expelled, viz : Oksidjion, Orghai, 
Midia, Yintros, Vizie (the greater part of), Messini, Ahmet Bey (in 
April), Sarakina (in May), and Tchiflik (in September). 

(^>) Deportations in 1915. 

The harm done so far was not deemed, however, sufficient. The 
task lay before these persecutors of the Christians of enforcing the 
deportations of those communities. Their first measure was to arrest 
Bishop Anthemus, of Vise. They thus separated the Spiritual Head 
from the inhabitants in order to dei)rive them of tlie moral support 
he was in a position to afford them. But the deportation did not 
begin yet. 

On his return from Samacova, Hadji Adil Bey, the Governor of 
Adrianople, was attacked by a gang of brigands on the 20th August, 
1915, who killed his ten years old son and wounded the chauffeur of 
the motor car. Tnis murder was unjustly attributed to the few re- 
maining Greek inhabitants, and their persecution began under the 
direction of the anti-Greek sub-governor of Samacova, Hamdi Bey. 
On the 5th September of the same year, this very sub-governor acting 
under orders received from Hadji Adil, arrested forty notables of the 
villages of Samacova, Troulias and St. Stefano, whom he imprisoned 
under the false accusation of providing for the Greek brigands. During 
the whole week they were subjected to all kinds of unheard of tortures 
under the influence of which they had to confess anything that Adil 
Bey might accuse them of. 

After a week's time tliey were divided into two bodies : twenty- 
two were handed over to gendarmes to be escorted to Kirk Klisse and 
eighteen were delivered to the numerous emisaries sent by Hadji Adil 
for the purpose of forcing the inhabitants to expatriate. The first 
batch was sent to Kirk Klisse, and thence to Adrianople, the second 
numbering eighteen were escorted by the emissaries to one hour's 
distance from the village of Samacovo, where Hamdi arrived, accom- 
panied by two policemen, Ilias and Ahmed Effendis, the clerk of 
Hadji Ahmed and the head of the emissaries Capetan Zekki, to preside 
at the butchery of eighteen heads of Christian families. These un- 
fortunate men left about 100 orphans behind them starving and home- 

The following are the names of the victims of the village of Sa- 
macovo : N. Kirkos, D. Panayiotakis, D. D. Dhoukidhis, P. Kiakhi- 
dis, K. N. Dhoukidhis, K. N. Takidhis, D. Koutsikodhis, V. Dimi- 
triou, G. Milonas. 


Those of Troulias are : - F. Phiannakos, D. Tsartos. 

Those of St. Stefano : - K. Marinelhs, C. Athanassiades, I. Atha- 
nassiades. Also of Peristassis : - Constantinos and Georgios Atha- 
nassiou expatriated to Samacovo. 

Meantime, the inhabitants of the four above mentioned villages, 
and those of the remaining district of Vise, after having been besieged 
and plundered, were expatriated to Heraclea, (Marmara), and thence 
spread all over Thrace and the diocese of Nicomedia and Kyzik. 

The Bishop of Vise, Anthimos, was also among the deported. 
He was accused of complicity in the murder of the son of Hadji Adil 
Bey, by an official communication of the Ministry of Justice under 
date of the 2nd January, 1331/1916. 

This was followed by a further one, under date of the 23rd May 
of the same year, by which the Government insisted upon his being 

And although the Patriarchate addressed a note proving the falsity 
of tlie accusation brought against the said bishop, and it was known 
to all that the murder had been committed by a Bulgarian gang who 
at that time scoured the country, the Government contrary to law 
and equity, kept the bishop in confinement first at Heraclea, and then 
at Tchorlou. Owing to his serious illness later on, he was allowed to 
come to Constantinople. 

Apart from the massacres mentioned, many were killed and others 
wounded during the two deportations of the inhabitants of this 

Thus were the following murdered. 

At MOUSSELIM : Yiovanni Athanassiou and Pashalis Christo- 
doulou (in March, 1914). 

At MANGRIOTISSA : PashaUs Andreou (7th March, 1914). 

At ST. GEORGE : Theodoros Eambrinou, Yianakis Penios, and 
Stelios Yioffi (19th March, 1914). 

At SARAKINA : Constantinos Hadji Bahar, Anastass Kouyoum- 
djis, Dimitri Mihail Boudouris, Eudoxia Constantinaki, and Athina 
Papayani (20th October, 1914). 

At MESSINI : Yanakis Nalbantis (20th October, 1914). 

At TROULIA : D. Frydas (14th February, 1914), Philippi Yia- 
nakou, D. Tsartos, K. Tsartos, and G. Tsartos (5th September, 1915). 

At ST. STEFANO : Kyriakos Marinelis, G. Athanassiadis, and 
Polyhronios Athanassiadis (5th September, 1915). 

At SOFIDES : Dimitris ZUtidis (5th September, 1915). 



This diocese orin^inally possessed a population of 11,250 inhabi- 
tants. Its i)rincipal town, Sozopolis, was on Bulgarian territor^^ and 
therefore suffered most severely at the time of the anti-Clreek persecu- 
tions of Eastern l^oumelia. Its inhabitants were deported. The re- 
maining portion, on Turkish territory, consisting of the Communities 
of Aghathopolis, Paleos Vassilikos, Provido, Costi, and Ghalatsaki, 
were repeatedly attacked by Turkish bands. During the Balkan W^rr 
they suffered greatly, but having, later on, been ceded to Bulgaria, 
through the peace treaty Mith Turkey, the whole Diocese was 
evacuated b}"^ its inhabitants in 1914, who took refuge in Greece. 


This diocese, with a population of 25,987 inhabitants was divided 
into thirty-six Conmiunities. Its sufferings during the Balkan War 
were such that its educational and economical vitality entirely dis- 

The villages chiefly occupied by the Bulgarians such as Ermeni- 
keuy, Akalan, Tchiflikeuy, Tzelepkeuy, Lazarkeuy, Castanie, and 
Oklali, were completely deprived of both their private and communal 

On the other hand the conditions of such villages as Arnaoutkeuy, 
Aghiasmataki, Imbrohori, Neohoraki, Dercos, and Boghazkeuy, became 
desperate owing to their occupation by the Turkish troops, who com- 
mitted all kinds of atrocities. 

A notable, loannis Seretakis, of the village of Boghazkeuy, after 
having been beaten unmercifully and manacled, was for hours paraded 
through the streets of the village like a criminal. The same fate be- 
fell two other notables. 

The village of Arnaoutkeuy was completely terrorised. On the 
11th May, Sotirios Rallis, Panayiotis Georgiou, and Theodosis Ale- 


xandrou went into the wockIs for the purpose of making charcoal. 
They were attacked by armed Turks and cruelly done to death. 

In the same village, in the space of two Meeks, fourteen heads 
of families were murdered. On the 28th June, 1914, Hariton Emma- 
nuel went out into the woods to cut wood. He was wounded by three 
Turks, two of whom were soldiers and the third a gendarme. 

Deportation during the European War. 

1. DOMUZ-DERE. — The political authorities forced its inhabi- 
tants to evacuate the village at a three hours notice, and start off to 
the village of Tchiflik. This took place in the depths of winter 
(February, 1915), the poor inhabitants being deprived of everything, 
and in a dreadful condition. 

2. FANARAKI. — The authorities ordered the deportation of the 
Christian population within two days which took place on the 12th 
February, 1915. They were embarked on Turkish sailing vessels, and 
ordered to Nehori, no one being allowed to land at any other point. 

3. KALFAS. — On the 30th April, 1914, this village was besieged 
by armed Turks. After a courageous defence on the part of the 
Christian inhabitants, which lasted two hours, the Turks succeeded in 
setting fire to the village, thus obliging the Christians to flee. Some 
sought refuge at Balouki, others in the same vicinity. On returning 
to the village later on tliey found their houses occupied by Turkish 
immigrants. In 1915, all the Greeks of this locality were deported. 

4. LAZARKEUY. — The Christians were forced to emigrate to 
Nicomedia during the Balkan War, and were strictly prohibited from 
taking anything away with them, although soon after the war was 
over they returned to their homes, and resumed their peaceable work 
in the fields. They were again expelled in February, 1915, and their 
properties plundered. Notwithstanding this they returned again, only 
to be expelled for the third time. 

5. AVASSOS. — In May, 1914, Turkish immigrants put up in this 
village, and persecuted the Christians, who were ultimately expatriated 
in 1915. 

6. BAKSEKEUY.— On the 16th April, 1915, the villagers were 
ordered to leave within twenty-four hours, and were allowed to take 
with them what they could carry. They dispersed about the capital. 

and 10. KIRETZ-BOURNOU.— On the 30th April, 1915, the Chief 
of Police summoned the elders of the town of Buyuk-dere and Yeni- 
mahale, and informed them that by orders of the Government, the 
whole of the Cliristian population from Yeni-mahale up to the landing 
stage of Tlierapia was to evacuate the place. Following this order, 
the inhabitants dispersed in tlie caj)ital and took away witli them 
things of the strictest necessity, depositing the remainder in tiieir 
own churches. The Turkish immigrants who settled there later on 
stole everything they could find belonging to the Christians. 

11. SAFRA. — This village suffered from the repeated aggres- 
sions of the Turkish immigrants. Pope Aghathangelos was nearly 
killed by the boys of the Agricultural School at Halki (April, 1914). 
In July, 1915, Turkish immigrants occupied the majority of the houses 
of the villages, compelling the peasants to evacuate it in July, 1915. 

12. IMBROHOR.— On the 18th April, 1914, Turkish-Albanian 
immigrants over-ran the village and forced the inhabitants to sell to 
them, at onerous prices, everything they possessed. They retired to 

Owing to the insecurity of life and property, the inhabitants could 
not live there after the Turkish immigration into these villages, r.vA 
were obliged to expatriate themselves and disperse in different direc- 

16. PYRGOS. — Under dire oppression and strictly boyxottCv!, 
the inhabitants began to expatriate by degrees, in April, 1915. Jn 
order to avoid the menaces and plundering of the Albanian immigrants, 
many Christians resorted to the capital. The constant arrival of fresh 
Turkish immigrants forced the whole Christian population to leave 
and go to the diocese of Nicea. 


During the period of the deportation of the Greek element, and 
when it reached its height, the emigration also of the inhabitants of 
Thrace was rapidly followed by that of the coast of Asia Minor. A 
strict boycott was started in the Capital itself having as its sole object 
in view the expulsio.i of the Christian element, so as to present 
Constantinople in the light of an exclusively Moslem city. 

Systematically organised, cleverly applied and supported as it was 
by all the oppressive measures devised by the Young Turk's Pro- 
gramme, this boycott would doubtless have resulted in a great 
catastrophe for the Greek element had the European War not broken 
out at a very critical moment, and diverted the immediate and serious 
attention of the Government elsewhere. At that time it was a question 
of enforcing a premeditated plan for the wholesale deportation and 
extermination of the Christian element in the provinces, so as to 
facilitate tlie execution of their designs with reference to Constanti- 

The boycott had, nevertheless, the effect of bringing trade to a 
standstill, especially in the qu'^r'^orK of Potira, Xyloporta, Sarmatchik, 

Top-capou, Tekfour-Serai, Kashim Pasha, Vlanga, Alti-Murmur, 
Psamatia, Yedikoulle, Sirkedji, Bechiktache, and Oi'takeuy. 

The only place in which deportation on a grand scale took place 
was ill the community of Stenia. The population of this parish number- 
ing 320 inhabitants, were dispersed by order of the Chief of Police 
of Arnaoutkeuy, in July, 1915. They all took shelter in the suburbs 
of the Capital, with the exception of five families whose heads were 
in the Government employ of the locality. 

Isolated cases of expulsions were however numerous, some being 
sent to Brouse and the interior of Asia Minor, simply because it was 
suspected they were opposed to the orders or decision of the Govern- 



This diocese was composed of eleven communities and contained 
a population of 9,005 Greeks. Although they were not forced into 
exile, they were nevertheless exposed not only to Bulgarian persecu- 
tion, but to that also of the Turkish element after the retreat of the 

The inhabitants of the communities of this diocese Mere on the 
one hand threatened with exile, and on the other had to share in the 
sufferings of thousands of Christians from the dioceses of Dercos and 
Tchorlou, to whom they afforded shelter. 

At one moment the inhabitants tliought they were on the eve 
of their deportation, because a committee, accompanied by gendarmes, 
visited their villages and took down the names of the Christian owners 
of houses, in which they were to accommodate the Turkish refugees. 
Firing and aggression by night inspired the inhabitants with great 
fear for their lives, property and honour. 

Several Christians were cruelly maltreated and others, among 
whom were the Vicar of Kalikratia, had to api)ear before a court 
martial following certain false accusations brought against them by 
the gendarmes. 

'2 A 


This diocese, with a jjopiilation of 13,878 inhabitants, divided into 
twel/e conmiiriities, alsj underwent the trials and misfortunes that 
befell other dioceses. At the time of the Balkan War when this 
district came provisionally under Bulgarian rule, all kinds of acts of 
extortion and plunderin;:^ took place. At the Turkish re-occupation 
no amelioration in tlie fate of the Christian population was evident, 
it rendered their position, if anything still more critical, robbery and 
murder being rife at that time. 

At Silivrja Turkisli fanaticism reached the limit of its violence. 
The market remained closed for a long time, the inhabitants being 
afraid to attend to business owing to the threatening attitude of the 
Turks who sought to revenge themselves for the losses and damages 
they had sust:iined at tiie hands of the Bulgarians. The prisons were 
fjll of innocent Christians, whom the (lovernment officials tlirashed 
unmercifully^ On the 8th of July, 1913, sailors from a man of war, 
anchored in the port of Silivria, proceeded to the burial ground and 
destroyed the crosses off tlie tombs. The same acts of desecration 
were repeated by the Turkish immigrants on the 10th May, 1914. 
The latter insulted the Christian religion publicly, and threatened the 
life of Pope Chrysostomos, because he dared to remonstrate against the 
breaking of the window panes of the church. 

At XASTERO, a village plundered on more than one occasion 
during the retreat of the Turks, was the scene of eleven murders and 
tlie wounding of four other persons. 

The two monasteries close to the village were almost entirely 
destroyed. At the time of re-occupation the same outrages as at 
Silivria took place. The other communities suffered equally, especially 
those of EPIVATRS (where eighteen Greeks were murdered), YIALI 
(where five Greeks were slaughtered), COIT^FALI and FANAllAKI. 
This last village on being besieged by the Turks of the vicinity and 
Turkish immigrants in April, 1914, was saved thanks to the courage 
displayed by its inhabitants, and the systematic defence they organised, 
during which many Turks were made prisoners, among whom an Al- 
banian bearer of a letter of a certain Hussein, of Tchataldja, addressed 
to the Chief of the Gendarmerie of Fanar, Brigadier Ismail, which 
contained the following. "As the Christians of Fanar will be expelled 
in a few days, try to kill as many sheep for me as you can." It is 
obvious, therefore, that the aggression of Fanar had been contemplated 
for some time with the knowledge of the Gendarmerie, whose com- 
plicity was proved the same night of the attack, when from the window 


of the station they fired at the Christians. On the 16th of the same 
month and year, Filoctimon of Fanar was killed at a quarter of an 
hour's distance from the town. 

The Communities of Kiutchuk-Seimen, Avren, Sinekli, and Eco- 
nomio, did not escape deportation. The village of Simecli, which 
was burnt down during the Balkan War, was rebuilt by the inhabitants 
from Loule-Bourgaz. They were, however, again expelled in 1914. 

ECONOMIC was in January the seat of the most unheard of 
atrocities committed however, this time, not by the irregulars, but by 
officials of the government. 

At the renewal of the Turk-Bulgarian war, the Turkish fleet 
moored opposite the village, and landed 500 troops, headed by their 
officers. The latter commanded the priest, teacher, and elders, to 
appear and ordered that all young men of fifteen years and upwards 
should assemble within half an hour. 

Lnsuspicious of anything, 140 young men hastened to comply 
with the order, but some few of them, suspecting the designs of the 
Turks, hid. The officer in command intrusted the 140 in bands of 
twenties to the soldiers, in order to escort them to the sea shore where 
they were murdered. One of the first to be murdered was the Parish 
priest, Neofitos., whom they burnt alive. The inhabitants frightened 
out of their wits sought refuge in caves. 

In 1914, the unfortunate inhabitants suffered again a real martyr- 
dom. This time it was at the hands of savage hordes of irregulars 
and other Turks of the neighbouring villages, who invaded the locality 
and forced the inhabitants to expatriate, leaving behind everything 
they possessed. 

They were deported again in 1914. 



The diocese of Heraclea, consisting of a Christian population of 
74,036 and divided into eighty-two Communities, was entirely des- 
troyed owing to the methods of extermination adopted by the Young 

Deportations, massacres, islamizing, requisitioning of property, 
arbitrary impositions, raping, plundering, and desecration of churches, 
such were in a word, the expedients to which the Young Turks had 
recourse, assisted by officials of all grades, and several notable Turks, 
including the ex-deputy Rodesto Adil Bey and his grecophonos son 
Touad Bey, members of the Administrative Council of Rodesto. 

The rigorous application of this progranmie dealt a mortal blow 
to the once flourishing economic and educational life of the Greek 
population of this diocese. 


(a) Persecution in 1914. 
('() Rododto Region. 

1. RODOSTO. — Tliis town witnessed some truly tragic scenes. 
Half its Greek population expatriated owing to the oppression and 
the rigorous boycott inflicted on them. This was the case with nearly 
the whole of Thrace. In December, 1913, policemen went through 
the Turkish, Jewish and Armenian quarters at the order of the 
Government, commanding that all commercial intercourse with the 
Greeks should cease. Besides this a meeting took place in the Turkish 
quarter, at which it was decided that all Moslem proprietoFs who had 
Greek tenants should return the rent received from them and cancel 
the contracts. 

Such were the impediments and restrictions imposed upon the 
trade that in a very short time out of 250 only twenty shoi)s remained, 
the doors of which were guarded by Turks posted there to survey the 
application of the boycott. Besides this tlie Government requisitioned 
the schools and all buildings and property belonging to the Community. 

2. PANIDON. — Attacked in July, 1913, by the neighbouring 
Turks, this village was plundered and again attacked in August, 1914. 
Its inhabitants took refuge in Koumvas intending to return, but oj 
the 13th of August of the same year, the Government sent steam 
ships and transported the Greek population to Greece. 

3. KOUMVAS. — Overrun by Turkish immigrants, oppressed and 
threatened not only by the Turks but by the Government officials as 
well, the inhabitants were obliged to expatriate. 

4. NAl'P-KEl'Y. — The following reasons obliged the inhabitants 
of this village to depart : viz : They were forced to subscribe for 
the fleet. Compelled to work on road making. Their lives were 
threatened, and lastly, the Chief of the Gendarmerie, Sukry Bey, 
finally gave them the friendly advice to go. 

5. SKOLARION. — On Easter Sunday, the Administrator of 
Rodosto and the Chief of the Gendarmerie, Sukry Bey, arrived here, 
subjected the inhabitants to forced labour, and subscriptions for the 
Turkish fleet. 

Later on the village was attacked by the Turks of the immediate 
vicinity, and after oppressing the Christians in divers manners, they 
took away their sheep, to the amount of 35,000 head. In vain did 
the Christians protest and appeal to the Administrator for redress. 
They were obliged finally to evacuate the village. 

6. SIMITLI. — Attacked on every side, taxed heavily, the in- 
habitants of this village sought refuge in that of Skolarion, on the 
8th August. Ahmed Effendi, Mudir of Koumvas, was especially 
instrumental in their deportation. Dimitri Kalasticakis, Fotini Hadji 
Dimitriou, and Nicolaos Kalasticakis, were murdered. Panayiotis 
Kamparis and Yioanis Kizlaris were seriously wounded. 


7. TCP! AN AKDJI.— Lieutenant Clmkri informed the villagers 
of his inability to protect them against the hostility of the Turks of 
the adjacent villages, and asked that they should evacuate the place 
in twenty-four hours, using pressure in order to make them sell their 
cattle and goods and chattels. The inhabitants removed to Greece 
after they had signed a document to the effect that they departed at 
their own free will. 

8. SELDJIKEUY. — The greater part of the village was burnt 
down in July, 1913, by the re-:Occupation of soldiers of Thrace and 
the neighbouring Turks. Two hundred and ninety Christian families 
were exposed to the danger of being massacred. In April, 1914, a 
government official ordered the village to be evacuated in twenty-four 
hours. After many entreaties, accompanied by a bribe of Ltq.50, he 
promised to extend the limit to three days. But on the same day, 
masses of armed Turks forced the Christians to evacuate the place 
and resort to Greece. 

9. KIOSELEZ. — The inhabitants were deported, via Rodosto, 
to Greece. 

{^) Heraclea Region. 

10. HERACIyEA. — After a three days' general plundering, 
under the orders of the sub-governor of Tchorlou at the head of forty 
gendarmes, the village was evacuated and its inhabitants fled to 
Greece (middle of September). 


same fate befell these two villages. 

(c) Harioupolis Region. 

IS. HASKEUY. — This village suffered a veritable martyrdom 
during its re-occupation by the Turks, especially at the hands of the 
troops from Adana. In 1914, under persecution and threats, its in- 
habitants left for Greece. 

14. REPETSI. — The inhabitants of this village expatriated 
under similar conditions. The Mudir of Sakim-Keuy robbed them of 
tlieir cattle and other goods, and sold them for his own benefit. 

(d) Malgara Region. 

At the time of the re-occupation of Thrace, the village and 
district of Malgara were jilundered and destroyed. Two were 
murdered : Hadji Costantis Kolymbrianis and Dhimos Almaliotis. 

. 15. HASKEUY. — The peasants suffered all manner of persecu- 
tion when the village was re-occupied by the Turkish Army. The 
greater part of it was plundered and destroyed by fire. An officer, 
revolver in hand, ordered the muhtar of the village to bring him, 
three Christian girls. 


The order not hav'ng been complied with, the men were im- 
prisoned and the women conducted to a square, where the soldiers 
vented their bestiality on girls from eight years upwards, not sparing 
even women of seventy-five years old. Their shameful conduct lasted 
for twenty-four hours, until escaping finally from the brutality and 
persecutions of the Turks the inhabitants fled to Greece. 

16. KALI VIA. — The re-occupation of this village was attended 
by the usual murders and plunder on the part of the Turks. Amongst 
others, the head of the Monastery of Ibenes, Eudokimos, Pope Pana- 
yiotis and his servant were killed. A young girl, chased by a Turkish 
soldier, committed suicide by throwing herself out of the window 
rather than be raped ; but even then her dead body was not respected 
by this brute. 

Its inhabitants dispersed. Part of them emigrated to Greece. 

(e) Ouzoun Keupru Region. 

17. OUZOUN KFA PRU.— At the time of the re-occupation, the 
village and district of the same name suffered bitterly from the Turks. 
Requisitions, plunders and all kinds of persecutions forced many of 
the inhabitants to emigrate to Greece. 

18. SOUBAS-KEUY.— The damage done to furniture and 
landed property was estimated at 23,130 Turkish jwunds. Four in- 
habitants were killed and tlie rest fled to (ireece. 

(/) Kechar Region. 

19. BAIRAMICH. — The inhabitants sougiit refuge in Greece, 
after being plundered. 

(b) Deportations during the European War. 
(«) Ouzoun Keupru Region. 

1. OUZOUN KEUPRU.— The remaining inhabitants of this 
village were deported gradually. The first proscription took place on 
the 20th September, at midnight. Twenty-nine Christian families 
were driven out of their homes, put on cars held ready by the 
authorities, and arrived after a three days' march at Malgara, where 
they were thrown into the houses previously occupied by the deported 
Armenians. The second batch was dispatched under the same condi- 
tions on the 8th October, 1915, at midnight. This company compris- 
ed fifty families, who were also sent to Malgara. The third and last 
deportation took place at midnight on the 18th October, 1915. In 
the meantime, about thirty families took shelter in Constantinople, 
Adrianople, Bulgaria, and elsewhere. Their furniture, corn, and other 
objects were confiscated. The schools and Church were requisitioned. 

2. DERVINAKI.— The Mudir of Tchop-Keuy visited the village, 
and after beating the Pope, Fotios, and threatening the inhabitants, 

33 D 

called upon them to evacuate the place. In May, 1915, fifty Turks 
under the orders of the Chief of the Gendarmerie, accompanied by 
many Turkish immigrants, entered the village, and demanded of its 
inhabitants to evacuate the village within three days, after which they 
plundered it and carried off Dhimos Haritos, who was found dead 
in the woods the next day, bearing six wounds. Some time after the 
villagers returned to their homes. 

3. LALAKEUY. — The inhabitants were forced to evacuate the 
village and took refuge in Kastritza, Farasli, and Kashim Pasha 

4. KARABOUNAR. — After the re-occupation of Adrianople by 
the Turks, this village was brutally pillaged, especially by the well- 
known miscreants of the adjacent village of Maksoutli, at the head 
of whom were Kel Tahir, Neki Ahmet, and Hussein, well-known 
characters, and renowned of old for their exploits. By threats Ihey 
managed to extort Ltq.lOO (in gold) from the poor villagers. 

At the time of their deportation the Christian inhabitants of 
Karabounar (September, 1915) were given short notice to depart and 
were despatched by Government carts, escorted by gendarmes under 
the superintendence of the members of the Young Turks' Committee, 
so that they scarcely took anything away with them. 

5. MALCOTSI. — After the second Balkan War, as soon as the 
Bulgarians retreated, the Turks of the vicinity, especially those from 
the village of Mandritsa, did great damage to the place, the Christian 
inhabitants of which, fearing lest they should be molested by the 
Turks, had for the greater part sought refuge in Bulgaria and Greece. 
Some few families that remained over were deported by the Turkish 
authorities to the village of Doghankeuy of the Malgara district. The 
Church and Hol}^ Communion were desecrated by the Turkish immi- 
grants. Shortly after, the Church was demolished, and the stones 
sold by the Turkisli Government through the Mudir of Tchop-keuy, 
Ahmed Teufik Bey. These very stones, which Christian women were 
forced to carry, were used to build the mill and stables of the late 
Hadji Emin Agha, chairman of the branch office of C.IJ.P. (Committee 
Union and Progress). The same lot befell the houses, fields, and 
fortunes left behind them by the deported Greeks, which were given 
gratuitously to the Turkish immigrants from (ireece and Serbia, who 
had settled in Malkotsi since the European War broke out. 

Two-thirds of the Christian population dej)orted to Doghankeuy 
were obliged to take refuge in several villages of the district of 
Malgara and Ouzounkeupru, as they could not earn a living in the 
former place. Many families also went over to Bulgaria. 

The inliabitants of Malkotsi suffered from the persecution of the 
Mudir of Tchopkeuy. At Easter, 1915, in the night, he gathered 
the peasants in the village clmrcli. Standing before the Altar, whip 
in hand, he swore at them, thrashed innocent women and children, 
and Pope Papa Christo Economou, in order to force them to surrender 
the deserters who did not exist. He whipped and imprisoned Atha- 
nassi, son of the Pope, and was the cause of his death ; and lastly, 


it was he who forced the villagers to give the sum of I^tq.lOO for 
the pretended erection of a Hospital at Adrianople, of a Mill at Tchop- 
keuy, and ships for the Turkish fleet, etc. 

6. KIRKEUY. — At the time of the re-occupation of the village 
by the Turks, the Christian population suffered equally at their hands. 
Some 110 notables were then expelled, and their fortunes confiscated 
by the Turkish Government. Their landed property was handed over 
to the Turkish immigrants. Those of the Greek inhabitants who 
evaded exile became the victims of the rapacity and greed of the 
Turkish Government and the Turkish notables in their immediate 

Towards the middle of September, 1915, the inhabitants were 
deported in the same manner as those of so many other villages, and 
took refuge in Doloukeuy (of Malgara). 

, 7. KAVADJIK. — During the second Balkan War, this village 
was plundered and then set fire to by the Turks, especially those of 
the Turkish neighbouring village of Hamidie, in consequence of which 
its inhabitants suffered endless i)rivations and atrocities. The majority 
of the houses and the village Church were burnt, and no less than 
fifteen Greeks were savagely put to death. 

Owing to these terrible conditions, the majority of the (ireeks 
dispersed over the other Christian villages of Ouzoun Keupru ; some 
went to Bulgaria, and some to Greece. On the 20th of August, 1915, 
the remaining families were expelled by the Turks and deported to 
the Malgara region. Some established themselves in the village of 
Tartarkeuy, some in that of Repitz. 

(^>) Malgara Region. 

8. KARYA. — Before the emigration of the inhabitants of this 
locality, forty-two peasants were, by order of the Government, ex- 
pelled via Enos. In April, 1915, twenty mounted brigands entered 
the village, and summoned the peasants to hand over to them all their 
cattle and pay a ransom of £1000. They ill-treated the women and 
children, and carried away seventeen men and an old woman. 

The plundering of the village lasted three days. A young girl 
of fifteen years old, Nerandja Anastassiou, was raped. After further 
ill-treatment the whole population of this village was expelled. 

9. SULTANKEUY.— In April, 1915, the notables of Ipsala asked 
the peasants of this village to sell then! their flocks. In the mean- 
time the sub-governor sent four gendarmes to protect the villagers. 
They, however, joined the Turks from the vicinity, who invaded the 
village during the night, ill-treated the Christians, and exacted a 
ransom ; plundered the village, carried away 6,600 sheep, 3,000 
lambs, and 800 ploughing cattle, and outraged thirty men, of whom 
five were found murdered. Two of them had been shot dead, and 
three decapitated. 

The following are the names of the latter : Dimitrios Stathis, 
Christos Pravitzos, and Nicolaos Dirdjalis. 


(c) Keshan-Ipsala Region. 

On the of April, 1915, many villages of this region were 
simultaneously attacked by the Turks, as if by previous arrangement. 
The inhabitants in great fright took to the woods and sought refuge 
in Besaid, whence they returned once more, but only to be deported 
definitely, leaving everything they possessed in the hands of the 

10. KESHAN. — During the Balkan War, Lazis volunteers, 
together with the remnants of the retreating Turkish army, set fire 
to the Christian quarter of the village, murdered fifty of its in- 
habitants, among whom was Pope Anastasse Sakelarios, and carried 
away 170 cars and twenty camel loads of plundered goods. Having 
suffered already in 1914, the inhabitants fled to Sterna and elsewhere 
in November, 1915. 

11. HIDIRKEUY. — This village was attacked and two women 
and seven men were carried away. Of the latter two were found 
slaughtered in the vicinity of the village (Christos Yiayouis, eighty 
years old, and Simeon Christou) and two severely wounded, the Muh- 
tar Vasilakis Politis, and Diamandis Theoclitos. The inhabitants were 
deported to Bessait in September, 1915. 

12. KARLIKEUY." — The Muhtar Evangelos was arrested and 
taken to Ipsala. He met with a tragic end in the marshes of the 

13. BAZARDERE.— This village was attacked in April, 1915. 
Several persons were seriously wounded. 

14. TCHELTIKI. — Three peasants were exiled from here. All 
the cattle and the property of the' inhabitants were plundered. 

15. HADJIYHU. — During the attack on the village. Pope 
Pappa Sava was seriously wounded. The inhabitants of this village, 
as well as those of the three foregoing ones, were deported in Septem- 
ber, 1915, and resorted to Maltepe (Malgara). 

16. MAVRES. — Atrocities and plunder were committed here. 
One man and a girl were islamized, as well as a Christian soldier of 
the Labour Batallion. The village was evacuated on the same date 
as the above. 

17. KOUROUDJOUKEUY.— Two villagers were murdered, 
after which the inhabitants retired to Bessait. 

18. IVRIKTEPE.— The Christian population, under the dire 
persecution of the Sub-governor of Ipsala and the Mudir of the village, 
sought refuge later on in Altintash. Twelve persons were exiled ; 
Haralambos Kirdjili was murdered. Stavraki Omouroglou and (Jeor- 
gios Dimitriou were decai)itated. Dhimos Tsataris was seriously 

19. M?:GHARIS.— In April, 1915, fifty armed Turks attacked 
the village. They murdered Vassili Antoniou, beat the parish priest, 


and after plundering the houses, retired. Later on this village was 
also evacuated by the Christians. 

20. VARNITSA.: — Four peasants Mere wounded, one of them 
mortally. In 1915, the village was plundered and its Christian popula- 
tion took refuge in the surrounding villages. 

21. KARATSALI. — In 1915, the Christians were deported to 

22. CADIKEUY. — Gendarmes plundered this place and forced 
the inhabitants to seek shelter in- the adjacent villages. 

23. BEYENDIK.— The notable, Zafiris, was exiled. After 
undergoing repeated attacks, the Christians resorted to Kiostritsa, 
Farsali, and Kassim Pasha (Harioupolis). 

24. MAHMOITTKEUY.— The village was burnt down and its 
inhabitants established themselves elsewhere. Anagnostis, a merchant, 
was exiled. 

25. GRAVOUNA. — Seventeen peasants were murdered during 
its re-occupation in 1915. Angelos Papazoglou, who was exiled, found 
a sad end near the Maritza. Two soldiers of the Labour Battallion 
were islamized. 

26. MOUZALI, 27. SIGLI, 28. FAKIRMA, 29. KARA- 
TEPE, 30. KOUROU-TCHESME.— In September, 1915, after the 
Christians had been subjected to plunder and persecution by the Turks 
of the vicinity, they took shelter elsewhere. 

31. EXAMILI. — The inhabitants were deported and sent, in 
April, 1915, to the Diocese of Nicomidea. 


This diocese comprised eleven Communities, numbering 14,861 
inhabitants. Their position was rendered all the more critical because 
the Government, disregarding" the fact of their having suffered bitterly 
from the earthquake of July, 1912, enforced disproportionate and daily 
increasing taxes on them, which were collected in a most oppressive 
manner. But this was not all. Even the smallest of the Govern- 
ment officials considered the inhabitants as his vassals, subjecting them 
to all kinds of heavy and degrading forced labour. 

This already unbearable state of affairs was aggravated still more 
by the severe boycott, inaugurated by the Captain of the Port of Hora, 


Suleiman, who went so far as to strictly prohibit any communication 
between the Greek population and its Bislioj) or Bishopric. 

1. KASTAMBOL.— On the 10th of April, 1914, the Turks of 
the villages of Mustedjet, Beioglou, Calaidji, Giovanni, and others of 
the vicinity, attacked the community, obliged them to take refuse 
at leros Oros. A few days later tlie intruders having retired, the 
peasants returned to their homes. Seeing that it was impossible to 
deport the Christian Community, the Turks hit upon the following 

On the 6th of May, four gendarmes came to Kastambol. They 
called together the notables of the village, with whom they pretended 
they would like to discuss matters appertaining to the community. 
All of a sudden, one of the gendarmes who had made his escape un- 
noticed, fired two shots, thus giving the alarm, and a moment after 
the armed Turks wlio lay in ambush, started firing on the village. 
The inhabitants took to flight. Gregorios Georgiou was killed. 
Constantinos Ahileos, Georgakis Paraskevas, Kyriakitsa Theohari, and 
Zacharia Hadji Theodossios were seriously wounded, the old priest 
Georgios was beaten and his chin cut off. An old woman of seventy- 
five, Kanelitsa by name, was violated. After many days spent in 
Ganos, the peasants emigrated to Greece. 

2. INDJE-KEUY. — This locality was also plundered early in 
July, 1913, by the Turks from the neighbouring villages recruited for 
the purpose. Its inhabitants fled to leron Oros, whence they re- 
turned shortly after. In the beginning of 1915, the peasants were 
forced to build twenty-five houses in the Turkish quarter of the village 
of Tartaly, which had been destroyed during the war ; to contribute 
also Ltq.80 for the construction of the Governor's residence, and the 
establishment of telephonic communication. On the 10th April, the 
small monastery of the village was attacked. The Turks broke open 
the safe, and stole all the silver ornaments they found in it. They 
tore the holy vestments to pieces, desecrated the holy eikons, and 
destroyed everything they could lay hands on in the monastery. 

That very day 300 armed Turks surrounded the village, and 
following up their programme of extermination of the Greek element, 
attacked the villagers with such ferocity that they sought safety in 
flight in the adjacent mountains. Later on the inhabitants returned 
to their homes. 

On the 6tli May, shortly after their attack in the village of Kas- 
tambol, the identical Turks returned, and after very brisk firing, 
during which Yianakis Athanassiou was killed, the inhabitants, panic- 
stricken, hurried down to Ganos, whence they embarked for Greece. 

3. NEOHOKI. — In consequence of the threats of the Mudir, 
and other Government officials, and the terrorism i)ractised on them 
by the neighbouring Turks, the unfortunate Christian inhabitants fled 
to Greece, via Koumvaz, on the 6th May. 

4. MILK). — This village was also evacuated for simihir reasons. 
The inhabitants were prevented for eighteen long days from entering 
Ghanos, and were therefore obliged to stay in the open air, exposed 


to many dangers and sufferings. Prior to their departure the Com- 
mander of Gallipoli forced them to sign a declaration addressed to the 
Ministry of Interior to the effect that they left of their own free will. 

5. lUINOHOUI (ARAP HADJI).— This village was also 
plundered in the beginning of April, 1914. In desperation its in- 
habitants fled. No sooner were they gone than the Turks took pos- 
session of the village and settled down in it. 

Some of the villagers went to Ghanos, and others to Koumvaz. 
The Captain of the port of Hora, who had come from Ghanos, insisted 
upon their embarking at once. 

The register of this diocese is full of notes relating to the ill- 
treatment and attempted murders, perpetrated with the sole object 
of terrorising and ultimately compelling the Christians to evacuate 
the [)lace. On the 20th June, 191 1, the famous Mudir of Cadi-Keuy, 
and a teacher from Gallij)oli, entered the coffee shop of the Muhtar 
of Hora, Yianni Gabriel, thrashed him and a villager named Stavraki 
Tahiri unmercifully. He then s})read i)anic in the streets by firing 
a revolver among the i)easants. 

On the 14th July, 1914, Savas Seraphim, Nicolas Haralambou, 
Aristidis Varsami, Valassis Varsamis, Athanassakis Gheorgiou, and 
Christodoulos Katanis, were on their way to Harioi)olis on business, 
and although tliey were provided with the necessary permit they were 
attacked by the Gendarmes of Seledjik and beaten until they were 
black and blue after having been grossly insulted. To their entreaties 
for mercy they were answered thus : "Die ! return to your village 
and there you will starve." 

On the 16th July of the same year, the vestry -man of Hora 
went to the sea shore just at the moment when a steamer, with 
Turkish immigrants, was arriving. He was severely beaten by the 
Captain of the Port, Ismail. That very same day, a youngster of 
seventeen j^ears. old, son of one of the notables of the village, was 
thrashed by a gendarme because he did not bring him a chair 
immediately he was ordered to do so. Gheorghis Moshis, teacher in 
Simitli, was imprisoned and beaten to such an extent that he lost two 
teeth . Three times in one week Nicolaos Loghothetides was beaten 
by the Captain of the Port of Hora. 

Even those, and especially the older jjeople, forced to work on 
road making, were shamefully beaten. Their parents also and 
acquaintances, whether young or old, blind or ill, were indiscriminately 
thrown into prison, and there cruelly beaten to force them to divulge 
the whereabouts of deserters. 

On the 12th April, Constantinos Sirenis, on his way to Kastam- 
bol, was killed by a rifle shot from a Turk from the village of Beyo- 
glou. On the 21st August, Georgios Christodoulos was attacked by 
two Turks of Kastambol, and only by the timely intervention of his 
brother and some villagers was rescued and escaped death. On the 
14th September of the same year, Emmaijuel Torezos of Ardini was 



The ruin of this Diocese (composed of ten Communities and 
17,594 inhabitants) which began by the terrible earthquake of 1912, 
was completed by the relentless execution of the programme of exter- 
mination inaugurated by the Young Turks. 

Already, during the Balkan War, the systematic persecution of 
the Greek element in this district had utterly quashed the vitality of 
the people. The same methods employed in the other dioceses of 
Thrace were also used here. 

Early in November, 1915, the village of Yioldjik was surrounded 
by soldiers and gendarmes. They then opened a brisk fire and com- 
pelled the inhabitants to seek refuge in the mountains and adjacent 
woods. The besiegers then entered the village, laid hands on every- 
thing they could carry away and departed, setting fire to the village 
at various points. As the wretched villagers fled in terror to the 
woods the soldiers fired on them at point blank range and killed thirty 
of them. 

For no cause whatsoever, the two Popes of the village, Anthimos 
and Averkios, and nine of its notables, were arrested and thrown into 
the prison of Kilit-Bahr. Their condition there was utterly deplor- 
able. The prisoners were subjected to all manner of hard labour, 
were used for carrying very heavy weights and pulling carts, and 
often the men of thirty were used to satisfy the bestial instincts of 
the Turks. 

Such Turkish outrages the Christians had very often to endure. 
Towards the middle of July, 1917, Yiannis Sarantis, thirty -five years 
old, a deserter, was arrested. On his way to Myriophito, he was 
ligotted and outraged by the gendarme Moustafa, who escorted him. 
George Bodatis, also a deserter, was accorded similar treatment 
between Kalambitsi and Sternes. 

The inhabitants of the town of Myriophito and Peristassis, as 
well as the dwellers in the surrounding country, were oppressed, per- 
secuted and terrorised, so as to compel them to flee. Towards the 
beginning of 1913, the sub-governor of Myriophito exacted from its 
inhabitants the payment of Ltq.500, and analogous amounts from 
those of the other Greek villages for the upkeep of the Turkish fleet. 
The following day he imposed further contribution from the Christians 
for the construction of Government buildings, a Turkish school, tele- 
l)honic communications, national defence, etc., etc. At the same time 
the most rigorous boycott was exercised, and for the purpose of carry- 


mg it out effectively they brought from Constantinople tlie famous 
Bekir Agha whose method was to bring about by famine the disper- 
sion of the Communities. In the beginning of 1913, the importation 
of [)rovisions into Peristassis from Constantinople and the Asiatic Coast 
was prohibited under the penalty of death. Further, no communica- 
tion between Peristassis and the other communities was allowed, and 
as another precaution the boats were rendered useless by the removal 
of the oars. 

In spite of the sufferings to which this diocese was exposed during 
the persecution of 1914, it nevertheless succeeded in remaining intact. 
The communities of Heracletsa and Loupida suffered most during this 
period. In June, 1914, gendarmes came to Heracletsa and plundering 
the houses and sliops of the peasants, ordered them to abandon all they 
had and evacuate the place immediately, as the Mohammedan popula- 
tion could not tolerate them any longer, and threatened a wholesale 
massacre. At the same time the sub-governor of Myriophito sum- 
moned the Muhtar of Loupidas, and said to him : "We cannot protect 
you against the hostilities of the Turks. You must go. Have you not 
yet understood it, you idiots ?" 

In November, 1912, the community of Loupidas suffered greatly 
from the immigrant Turks, and lost ten of their numbers massacred 
by the Turks. 

The Christian poj)ulation of these communities as well as that of 
Neohori were compulsorily dispersed in 1915. The inhabitants, trans- 
ported by sea to Ismid, scattered among the villages and Diocese of 
Nicea and Nicomedia. 


This Diocese (eleven Communities with a total of 32,835 inhabi- 
tants) was completely destroyed. Owing to its geographical posi- 
tion it was constantly exposed to the fury of the Turks. Already, 
during the Balkan War, both the military and civil authorities had 
succeeded by vexatious requisitions in ruining the trade in the hands 
of the Christian population ; and later, during the European War, the 
Government, under a pretext of military exigency, forced the inhabi- 
tants to evacuate the locality at a few hours' notice, but took no 
measures either to protect the abandoned possessions or to succour and 
maintain the exiled population. 


Deportations during the European War. 

1. BOl LAIR.— From the time of the Balkan War tlie inhabi- 
tants of this village suffered first all imaginable evils as a result of 
successive requisitions, and the arbitrary dealings of the numerous 
troops concentrated there ; then the Turkish Government, under pre- 
text that the village was within the firing line, ordered its evacuation 
within three hours. Driven by the whips of the gendarmes, the 
people had to abandon everything they possessed, leave their village 
and go to Gallipoli. Seven of the villagers who were two minutes 
late behind the three hours limit allowed for the evacuation were 
shot by the soldiers. After the Balkan War was over, the exiles 
were allowed to return. But as the Government allowed only the 
Turks to rebuild their houses and furnished them besides with timber 
and every other facilit}^, the exiles were compelled to remain in Gal- 
lijK)li and later had to share its fate. 

2. KRITHIA. — A military mission arrived here in October, 

1914. Their first move was to surround the village by soldiers with 
fixed bayonets, and forbade all intercourse between the inhabitants. 
The soldiers then set to work forcing the evacuation of each house in 
turn, and under the very eyes of the Commission seized everything 
they could lay hands on. Stripped of everything they possessed, the 
wretched inhabitants in despair had to seek refuge in Madhytos and 
there later on had to share its fate. 

3. NEOHORI. — This village was evacuated on the 25th March, 

1915. The inhabitants had wished to go to Gallipoli, but the military 
authorities prevented them, telling them that it was not yet time to 
leave, and when the time came for evacuating the village the inhabi- 
tants would be advised, and they should then go, not to Gallipoli, 
but to the villages of Galata and Bair. This came to pass ; 200 
dwellings out of 300 houses which composed these villages, and in 
which the refugees from Neohori had been forced to find shelter, 
were occupied by Turkish soldiers, and they, by order of their officers, 
destroyed everything from granary to cellar, so that the poor 
Christian immigrants were compelled to remain in the open air under 
continuous rain. 

4. MADYTOS. — This village was evacuated on the 17th April, 
1915, in the space of five hours. After the devastation of their 
country, and the plunder organised in spite of the promise of Essad 
Pasha to the Metropolitan, that the property of the Christians would 
be respected, the inhabitants of Madytos, deprived of everytliing 
essential to them, after sojourning four days in the mountains, were 
embarked and despatched to the diocese of Cyzic (Pandemia, Perga- 
mos and elsewhere) where the tenth part of them died of the priva- 
tions and uni)recedented ill-treatment they underwent. 

5. (iALLIPOLI. — Tliis town was evacuated on the 19th April, 
1915. Two hours' notice was given to the inhabitants to leave, who 
after remaining four entire days and nights without any shelter, were 
embarked on board government steamers. No one was allowed, by 


order of the police, to take anytliing away with him. Some took re- 
fuge ill Panderma, and otiiers in Uodosto. Soon after their departute 
their houses were plundered. 

10. BAIRI, and 11. ANGHELOHORl.— The hihabitants of these 
villages were deported in May, 1915, and scattered over the district 
of Balikesser. 

The Metropolitan of Gallipoli, Constantinos, writing from Pan- 
derma, on the 1st July, 1915, sa3"s :- 

"More compassion is shown here to dogs than to the Christian 
refugees. A Greek doctor of Panderma, mistaken for a Moslem, over- 
heard the following conversation between two Turks : One of them 
indulgently qualified the Greeks as * refugees,' thereupon the other 
emphatically replied, 'They are not refugees, but dogs.' To their 
eyes, the Greeks were not worthy of the name of men. The same 
doctor called to attend to sick refugees had to i)rotest to the Police 
in the name of humanity, who prevented the refugees from even 
getting a drink of water from the adjacent fountain. 

"Close to the Panderma Railway Station the deaths of the re- 
fugees occur daily, and according to my information many die in the 
interior of the countrj^. The refugees who arrive at Panderma Station, 
exhausted through hunger and thirst, are often abandoned two or three 
nights without shelter, and when the trains which are to transport 
them to the Interior are ready, they are kicked into the wagons in 
asphyxiating numbers. A child only six months old was crushed in 
the arms of its mother. Holding the dead child, the unfortunate 
mother tried to bring it back to life, while uttering the most terrible 
laments. The spectacle was heartrending. When the train started, 
the poor woman, in a terrible anguish, was obliged to part with her 
baby by throwing it out of the door. 

"Some of the refugees, driven to despair, bewailed their lot in 
the presence of an officer, crying : 'For God's sake put us to death 
rather than torture us in the wa-^ you do.' The officer, in a tone of 
ferocious irony, replied : 'To massacre you would be doing you a 
good turn, because you will suffer once only, whilst it is necessary 
that every one of you should die a little every day, so that you may 
feel for a long time the dread of death.' 

"A Christian left alone at Marmara, owing to the illness of his 
wife and his old father's infirmity, had to carry her corpse on his 
shoulder to a distance from the village, and with his own hands dig 
a grave and bury his wife. 

"The Christian Orthodox Greeks subiected to this new system 
of persecution, without massacres, and consisting of protracted priva- 
tions of all kinds, are surely, slowly being done to death. There is 
?io place any more in Turkey for Christ's flock. For what is meant by 
their dispersion in small groups in Turkish villages, without Churches 
or priests, or intercourse with their countrymen, or the comforts 
of their religion ? What can mean the scattering of the inhabitants 
of Bairi, among thirty-six Turkish villages from one to twelve hours 


distant from Balikesse ? The dispersion of the other Christian 
refugees ? What is meant by the repeated deportation of the poor 
Greeks from one place to anotlier ? Nothing less than through 
privation and fear of deatli and in order to escape they should consent 
to abjure the Christian faith." 

The same Metropolitan of Gallipoli under date of the 17th July, 
1915, wrote : 

"The extermination of the Christian refugees is most methodical. 
If they are deported for strategical reasons alone, they could have 
been left to settle in the place to which they were originally sent. 
Such, however is not the case. What is obviously aimed at by con- 
stantly shifting them from place to place is to exhaust them and so 
cause their death. Two hundred and fifty villagers of Krithia, aloncf 
with some others of Madytos from Pasha Liman, who arrived here 
about a month ago are still in the fields near Oktche Gucul Station. 
They do not possess the necessary money to i)rovide for their own 
transport, and are kept waiting indefinitely, till it pleases the Govern- 
ment to take charge of them and send them to their destination. 
Their position is indescribable. 

''Yesterday, at my request, four of my countrymen at Oktche 
Gucul came and saw me to whom I secretly gave some money to be 
distributed among the refugees. I was dumbfounded at their appear- 
ance, so terribly changed from human beings did they look. I crossed 
myself. The unfortunate creatures fell at my feet and with tears in 
their eyes, asked to kiss the Crucifix. 'Give us the Cross of Christ 
to kiss,' they said, 'it is a long time since we last did so. It is a 
long time since we have heard the Gospel preached.' I presented 
the Holy Bible to them, which they kissed fervently after making 
the sign of the Cross. I was astonished at such piety and gave them 
my benediction. Before leaving with the money destined to appease 
their hunger, they asked to kiss the Crucifix again. 

"Such was my emotion that, with tears in my eyes, I appealed 
to God in these terms : 'Lord have mercy on and save Your people. 
Send them Your blessing. Abandon them not into the hands of the 
tyrants, but protect them with Your Almightiness.' 

"At the time of the evacuation of Mihaniona and Castelli all the 
Christians' property was plundered. The Christian inhabitants of 
these villages, along with the refugees of my Diocese, were sent to 
the Railway Station at Panderma to be transported to the Interior. 

" The Turks, like beasts of prey, immediately plundered all the 
Christians' property and carried it off. The inhabitants and refugees 
of my district are entirely without shelter, awaiting to be sent no 
one knows where ..." 

Deaths from hunger were daily multiplied. George Cdurbetis, 
native of Gallipoli, living at Panderma, with his wife Catherini, and 
his son sixteen years old, were found dying of hunger. They had 
eaten nothing for a whole week. They were at once given foo<l, but 
were, however, so exhausted that death resulted very soon. 

Cases of rape among women and young girls exiled, as well as 
their conversion to Islam, were frequent. On the 28th Ai)ril, 1914, 


Turkish immigrants penetrated into a Greek farm close to Madytos, 
and attacked it, killing three of the peasants with tlieir knives. The 
same day two brothers, refugees, Demitri and Yiassoumi, were beaten 
to death by the Turks, and their father, Christos Gheorgandidis, was 
mortally wounded. On the 12th May of the same year, Nic. Pas- 
mada, a native of Taifiri, was shot dead in the jaws. Athanassios 
Moushetis, also a native of Taifiri, was slauglitered, and Nicolaos Bar- 
bazos was mortall}'' wounded. The same fate befell Haralambis 
Emmanouil on the 31st May. His father was cut to pieces. Geor- 
gios Nicolaou, a native of Moshonissi, established in Madytos, was 
also slain. Christos Persimis, the night guard of Madytos, was 
dangerously wounded by a Turkish soldier close to the country. On 
the 26th September, 1914, Anthoulakis Bairlis, was assassinated by 
two soldiers who forced the door of his hut while he was lunching, 
and fired at him point blank. On the. 19th October, 1914, Turkish 
soldiers, having satisfied their bestial insticts on Panayioto Soyaka, 
a man of seventy, mortally wounded him and threw him into a ditch 
outside Madytos, where he was found horribly mutilated. 

On the 3rd March, 1915, Zacharias Klimas, a native of Krithia, 
received three stabs in broad daylight. The wounds to his neck were 
serious. On the 30th October, 1915, three natives of Bairi were cut 
to pieces at Soussourlouk, while the monk Ky])rianos, a native of 
Moshonissi, was massacred close to Mihalitsi. His eyes were put out. 
A mason of the name of Sotirios Elissiou, a native of Moshonissi, 
was put to death. On the 20th December, 1915, Minas Theoharis 
and his son Constantine were slaughtered b}^ Albanian Turks close 
to Kermasti. Alexandros Karayiannis and his countryman Panayiotis 
Kiozelis, native of Taifiri, were murdered. 

On the 28th May, 1915, two girls, refugees from Taifiri, near 
Baloukesser, Maria Ghoni and Anthoulia Karapanayiotti, were forcibly 
converted to Mahommedanism by the Authorities. On the 8th July, 
1915, the mayor of Kermasti, having fallen in love with Vaitsas Ant. 
Makri, a refugee of Madytos, and failing to carry her off, revenged 
himself on her protector, Foti Hadji Nicolaou, by exiling him along 
with his family to a village eight hours distant from Kermasti. 

The Municipality of the village became a house of iniquity, for 
the refugee women who applied for help to avoid starvation, were 
outraged. On the 7th April, 1916, the Christian refugees of the 
villages in the vicinity of Balikesser underwent all kinds of persecu- 
tion from the Turks. Tliey were refused bread on payment. The 
women were told that they should become Mussulmen so as not to 
die of hunger. 

In April, 1916, a woman of Madytos was violated by eighteen 
soldiers successively. 

In the beginning of June, Mary Anthoulaki, a native of Bairi, 
aged twenty, was converted to Mahommedanism at Balikesser, and 
quite a number of young girls were forced by the authorities at 
Government headquarters to do the same. 



The Persecutions and Martyrdom of the 
Greek Populations of Eastern and Western 

Asia Minor. 


At tlie end of the Balkan War, it was officially decided by tlie 
Turkish circles that the non-Moslem population of this district (thirty- 
four Communities and numbering 63,557 inhabitants), should be per- 
secuted at any cost, in consequence of whicli a rigorous boycott was 
carried out in all the Communities of this district, which was directed 
more especially against the Greek element, in whose hands they knew 
trade and industry to be. lender pressure and threats the Christian 
merchants w;ere obliged to get their supply of goods from the C.ILP. 
stores at prices fixed by the Committee, and whoever disobeyed the 
order was taken to the Caracol (Police Station), unmercifully beaten, 
and his shop closed. Next to every Christian shop a Turkish one was 
opened, the former being guarded by men appointed for the purpose, 
so as to proJiibit the entrance of customers, with the result that in a 
very short time the trade of the Christian fell off and many shops 
were closed, especially at Cadikeuy, Scutari, Couskoundjouk, Cartal, 
and the Bosphorus. 

At the same time the Turks fell upon the educational institutions. 
Under various pretexts, professors were dismissed and exiled and 
illiterate Turks appointed in tJieir stead. Numerous Greek schools 
were closed in order to force the children to frequent Turkish ones, 
which happened in the schools oi*^ Zoungouldak, Heraclea, and Douz- 
d]a. And when the general mobilizing was ordered, all the Christian 
schools of the Diocese were requisitioned under the pretext of accom- 
modating soldiers in them. 


On tlie outbreak of the European War, persecution and oppression 
became more and more intense. Every means for suppressing the 
mtellectual and economic activity of this Greek element was resorted 
to and the despoiling of Greek property was carried to the utmost 

Manj^ million pounds worth of goods were, so to say, requisitioned 
or taken away by threats from the Christian populations of Cadikeuy, 
Scutari, Cartal, Doudja, Bakalkeuy, Tchengelkeuy, Pasha-Baktche, 
Beicos Heraclea and the rest of the Diocese. No less than fifteen 
letters were addressed to the shepherds of Neohori from the Turks, 
ordering them to abandon their flocks and leave the country, threaten- 
ing to put them to death to the last man if they did not obey. A 
shepherd named Aristidis refused to comply with the order, and all 
his fingers were cut off. Terror-stricken, many shepherds conducted 
their flocks into other districts, where they were equally threatened 
and returned to the places they started from. It was only when the 
Christians decided to defend themselves that the menacing attitude 
of the neighbouring Turks was put an end to, and the Christian ele- 
ment of Guelze, Chile, Candri, and Tache-Keupru, enjoyed compara- 
tive tranquility. And although Talaat, then Minister of the Interior, 
endeavoured to incite the authorities of various places to restart the 
persecution, they refused on the ground that the Christians knew 
too well how to defend themselves. 

The mobilisation of the Christians ruined many Communities of 
the Diocese, and those employed at Angora for the construction of 
roads died of hunger, having been deprived by their officers of their 
rations, while any complaint against them on the part of the Chris- 
tian soldiers only brought mucli punishment and death. Further 
measures for exterminating the Christians were jjractised. 

When all these methods of oppression were exhausted, the Govern- 
ment started deporting the members of a given number of communi- 

1. ARVANITOHORI. — Following the arrival of two German 
officers in March, 1915 (Wednesday in Holy Week), the order was at 
once given that the village should be evacuated within four hours. 
At the expiration of the time given, thirty gendarmes proceeded to 
evict the men, women and children, who were prohibited from taking 
even things of the strictest necessity with them. The unfortunate 
])risants were obliged to seek refuge in Beicos, where, on Good Fri- 
day, they were embarked and sent to Daridja. 

After the Christians of Arvanitohori were expelled, the Govern- 
ment gave it the name of Mahmout-Chevket-Pasha, and forthwith 
installed Bosnian immigrants in it. They, assisted by the gendarmes 
and the Turks in the vicinity, plundered the houses of the Christians, 
desecrated the Church, and carried away everything they could lay 
hands on in the way of furniture and clothes left there by the Chris- 
tians, finally dividing the property among themselves. 

The vast and rich forests of the Community were laid hands on 
by the "Red Crescent" and the ex-Khedive of Egypt. 


2. HIGH, and 3. LOW NEOHORL— In April, 1916, the 
evacuation of this village w^as ordered. It w^as, however, counter- 
manded owing to the active steps taken by the Archbishopric, but 
carried out partially two months later, and although not successful 
was repeated for the third time, being enforced by the gendarmes in 
the usual ruthless way. Christians were escorted to Hartalimi, while 
on the other hand, the Government carried away 95,000 sheep belong- 
ing to the deported. Elderly priests were beaten to death on the 
way. Ilias Eournaris and Eleni Hadji Stoli died of their wounds. 
Women were violated, some of whom fell victims to the savage and 
violent outrages of their oppressors. 

The deported were distributed by force over the villages of Touzla, 
Gerze, Ada-Bazar, Eski-Shehir, and Kutahia. 

The deportation of the inhabitants of Neohori took place simul- 
taneously with that of Daridja. This latter was brought about by the 
appearance of Entente submarines in these waters ; for the Turks now 
accused the Christians of supplying the submarines, and persecution 
followed, such as the imprisonment of Grighorios Vafiadis, Panayiotis 
Tchorbadjis, and N. Nacos, wlio were sent on foot to the Court Mar- 
tial prisons and only released after many months' confinement. The 
inhabitants were ordered to evacuate the village within three days, 
but through tlie intermediary of the Metropolitan, however, the order 
was not carried out. 

4. KUTCHUK-BAKALKEUY.— Following an order the Chris- 
tian inhabitants of tliis village were told to evacuate the village within 
twenty-four hours to make room for the troops. Tiiis was in Septem- 
ber, 1917, but in spite of this extension of time the officer commanding 
ordered the villagers to take anything they could carry and evacuate 
the village in six hours' time, whereupon the inhabitants took to the 
neighbouring villages, having been obliged previously to sign a 
declaration to the effect that they left of their own free will. 

In October, 1917, the Christians of the Isles of Prinkipo, Halki, 
Antigoni, and Proti, met with the same fate, by an order of the 
Military Governor. Through serious steps, however, being taken, the 
order was rescinded and thus deportation was avoided. 



The Cliristians of this Diocese (sixty-seven Communities and 
54,031 Greek inhabitants) who were congratulating themselves on the 
comparative peace and security they enjoyed in the beginning, was 
turned, however, into dismay, when Turkish preachers were sent to 
all villages to incite their co-religionists to carry on openly in future 
the boycott which they had practised so far in secret, and to commit 
atrocities by way of imitating the Moslems of the other regions. 

In May, 1915, the usual systematic oppression and plundering 
commenced in the villages of Kara-Tepe, Esmes and Neohori. The 
inhabitants were ill-treated while the vicar of Ada-Bazar received a 
threatening letter ordering him to expel the whole of the Christian 
population at once or else he would be put to death. This letter was 
followed by proclamations posted up by the Turks on the Church 
doors calling upon the Christians to evacuate the place. Notwithstand- 
ing tliese threats, however, the inhabitants did not depart. 

The villages in the Province of Karamousal and inhabited by 
Christian Lazes were molested, and all their cattle confiscated. On 
the 19th June, 1914, two brothers, Jean and Anastassi Kyriacou, were 
found horribl}^ mutilated ; their eyes had been put out and their ears, 
nose and fingers cut off. This event filled the Christian inhabitants 
with terror, and impressed them more deeply with the idea of ex- 

rhe villages of Ku])lia, Ak Tash, Armoutli and Arvanitohori fared 
hardly at the hands of their Turkish aggressors. A young girl of 
seventeen years old, a native of Arvanitohori, who was pursued by 
Turks managed to escape, but she went mad. Basile Margaritis, 
muhtar of the same village, was mortally wounded by Moslems. He 
was carried to the French Hospital, where he expired a few days 

Moslem pirates constantly attacked Kalolymnos, and repeatedly 
insisted upon its inhabitants evacuating the island, who, when they 
appealed to the Turkish Authorities, paid no attention to them. 
Perhaps APPOLONIAS was tlie village that suffered most. 

1. BACH-KEUY.— On the 1st of June, 1914, brigands entered 
the village and forced the peasants to flee to the mountains, and thence 
to Moudania and Broussa, during which time their cattle were stolen 
by the Turks of the neighbouring villages. 

On reaching Doubi-Tchiflik, they met with gendarmes who 
atlvised them to return to their homes, only to flee again. However, 


they escaped to the station of Souloukli, where they found themselves 
face to face with fresh dangers so that they could only scatter hither 
and thither for safety's sake. 

During the pursuit, the following were killed : Manolis Tsingou, 
Theologos Ververoglou, G. Angelloglou, Atli. Hadjoudis, Ath. Yian- 
noulas (whose teetii the assassins broke, and wliom they tortured to 
such an extent that he put an end to his life by falling into a well). 
M. Sofianoglou, S. Kuriazoglou, Atli. Koumanoglou, Athanasse Hadji- 
oglou, B. and Isidore Serghianoglou, A. Zaharoglou, Photini Andrio- 
glou, Simatenia Sotiroglou (who, to escape violation, committed suicide 
by throwing herself into a well), Maria D. Masterayanoglou, Hrissan- 
thi Andrioglou, and G. Yannoglou. 

Many were wounded, amongst others : - N. Nassoglou, Zahare- 
nia Hadjanti ; J. Chionas, Th. Souloglou, Paraskevi Tcliakaloglou, 
and B. Papathanassiou, who had a narrow escai)e from death, and his 
left hand fractured. Many others again were unmercifully beaten, 
especially Poj^e Nicolas and a man named Polyhronis, wounded in the 
cheek. The following were carried away and Islamized : Austratios 
Tzakinoglou, and two children which the Turkish cart-drivers entrusted 
to Turkish wet nurses. Many women, among whom, Menexia Thy- 
mou, Despina Myrtoglou, Argyro Kyriazoglou and a young girl of 
twelve, Sopliia Kahoglou, were violated. 

2. A YIN ATI. — At the same time the Turks of the neighbour- 
hood attacked this village also, and forced its inhabitants to expatriate. 
Turks of the village of Patrikias threw Siriyianni Vassiloglou into a 
well, known by the name of "Well of St. George." A certain Hus- 
sein of the village of Anahori threw Efstratios Kayioglou into the river. 
Constantine Aliatoglou and Peter Sismanoglou (whose wife, forced to 
commit suicide, threw herself into lake Appolonias) were massacred. 
Many women besides were violated. 

3. HOROUDA. — Simultaneously with the events of Bach-keuy, 
Circassians and mounted brigands entered the village, and drove its 
inhabitants away. They laid waste to everything they came across, 
causing panic among the peasants, who accordingly took to the woods, 
only to be followed by the brigands. What then happened is beyond 
all description. The next day (2 June) certain families on their way 
to Broussa were forced to take the road leading to the village of Tcha- 
talaga, and were confined in an inn by the irregulars, who tortured 
them for hours in the very presence of the gendarmes. Kiosseoglou 
had his nose cut off because he could not pay the ransom the brigands 
claimed. K. Kiosseoglou, seventy years old, was beaten and stabbed 
in the chest. An old woman, Hadji Savati and a certain Nic. Vassi- 
liou, were wounded. 

4. TCHATALAGHA.— This village was also attacked by the 
neighbouring Turks, which they ruthlessly plundered. Elias Malco- 
yannis and Triantafilos Caracostoglou were murdered. The Pope, 
Hadji Athanassi, was shamefully ill-treated. Houses were burnt, and 
while the village was being plundered, representatives of the Com- 


mittee of the C.U.P. came from Broussa and had the peasants and 
their priest tortured. 

5. GHOULIOS. — Ath. Papazafiriades, Manoli Hadji Papa, and 
Ev. Lazarou were subjected to all kinds of ill-treatment because sus- 
pected of carrying arms. 

6. KIDIA and 7. APPELADATOS (Sou-Bachi).— On the 
first of June armed Turkish brigands attacked the village, but were 
repulsed by the peasants, who finally forced them to retreat. The 
Turks then sent word to the villagers that they would annihilate them, 
whereupon the inhabitants decided to take whatever they could with 
them and seek refuge in the village of Kidi. There they found the 
peasants concentrated on a hill, called Saint Peter, where they had 
resorted under similar circumstances. They joined fortunes, and 
taking the road to Trigla, fell into the hands of the Captain of Mi- 
halitch and his men, who rifled the peasants. These unfortunate 
wretches were further on subjected to a similar raid by another band 
under the Circassian Ismail, who literally stripped them of everything 
they possessed. 

8. AGHIA KYRIAKI. — This village was entirely plundered by 
the neighbouring Turks. 

9. TCARMOUDJA, 10. TCHNESNEIR.— The cattle and 
goods and chattels of the villagers were plundered. In the first-named 
village, Yiannakis Antonoglou was murdered, Tassos Haidakis was 
beaten, and Vassiliki Kalpakoglou (paralytic) was violated. 

11. DEREKEUY. — This village was also attacked by the sur- 
rounding Turks. Thej^ ran away with a young girl of fourteen, Ana- 
stassia Pai)ayianni by name, whose brother they beat and robbed. 

12. BELETLER.— On the 2nd of June, foot and mounted gen- 
darmes arrived at the village, which was the signal for the Turks of 
the neighbourhood to start plundering the village, while the inhabi- 
tants fled in great terror, the gendarmes standing by as apathetic 
spectators of the scene. 

13. ANAHORI. — On June 2nd an order was given by the Co- 
mitadjis (members of the C.U.P.) to the effect that all the inhabitants 
should leave their fortunes behind them, and evacuate the village. 
The Christians began to leave after having been deprived by the 
Turks of everything they possessed, who then let them go free. 

14. APOLLONIAS. — This community, more fortunate than 
the others, escaped being plundered owing to the ransom paid by the 
inhabitants, but a systematic blockade was kept up. On the 27th 
June, three fishing-boats, having ventured out on the lake to fish, 
were fired on by the Turks, and Andrea Pashalides was killed while 
Kyriaco Panayiotou and Kyriaco Kapoulis were seriously wounded. 

15. KOUVOUKLIA. — The village escaped destruction, owing 
to the effective defence the inhabitants put up for four days against 
the Turkish aggressors from the villages of Hassan Agha, Kayapa, 
Ilakithas and Kiopelia. 


16. EINESSI, and 17. PRIMIKIRL— After being subject- 
ed to repeated attacks from the Turks, accompanied by pillage, the 
inhabitants of these villages sought refuge at Panderma. Two pea- 
sants of Einessi were murdered by the railway clerks of Moudania 

LADJIK, 22. YALI-TCHIFLIK.— Although subjected to great 
persecution, the villagers did not leave their homes and property. 

23. AKTCHE-BOUNAR.— In this village Albanian immigrants 
from the vicinity established themselves after pillage and massacres ; 
a child, Basile Mihalisli, died of ill-treatment. 

24. DANXARI. — The inhabitants abandoned their plundered 
village, and sought refuge in the neighbouring village of Kouvouklia. 

The peasants of the evacuated villages were enabled, after some 
persuasion, to return to their homes, which, however, had been plun- 
dered in the meantime. But those of Ak-Tach and Kupline were 
forced to leave their homes and seek refuge in Greece. 

During the European War, in June, 1915, the authorities ordered 
the evacuation of the island of Calolymnos and the villages of Arvani- 
tohori, and Armoutli of the Yalova district ; and of Yali-Tchiflik, 
Tchamourdja, and Tchesneir, of the district of Apollonias. The in- 
habitants robbed of all they possessed were dispersed in the vilayet of 
Broussa. In order to justify such persecution, the Government pre- 
tended that the Greek population of the district had been supplying 
the British submarines with benzine. Needless to say these accusa- 
tions were devoid of all foundation. 


What brought about the ruin of this diocese (26 Communities, 
33,470 inhabitants) commercially and economically was the severe 
boj^cott carried out in Guemlek, the seat of the department, as well 
as in other communities of this region. The hatred that sprang up 
against the Greek element became, specially after the two Balkan 
Wars, more intensified, and resulted in greater and more arbitrary 
contributions, to which the Greeks were subjected owing to the fact 
that Guemlek was essentially a Greek town. 

In May, 1914, a systematic persecution was started. The Turks 
sought every opportunity in order to justify their attitude. The 
murder of a policeman by some miscreant offered them a good oppor- 
tunity for arresting numerous Christians and ill-treating them. A 
false charge of high treason was brought against the Christians for 


having conspired against the Government. Their calumniators did 
not hesitate to accuse the Christians of having instituted a Greek re- 
volutionary committee, in consequence of which Anastasse Pinatsis, 
Achille Karakassis, Elias Politis, and others were thrown into prison. 
As, however, this accusation proved groundless, the Turks, with the 
aid of false Turkish witnesses brought a fresh accusation against them 
of a still graver nature in order to justify the daily increasing per- 
secutions of the Christians of Guemlek. 

Some imaginary crime had been committed. The authorities 
must take action to prevent its repetition. The domiciles of the 
accused, amongst whom were some of the most peaceable of the in- 
habitants, were violated, and private letters and other documents, 
etc., were seized. 

The life and property of the Christians daily became more preca- 
rious at the hands of miscreants. Murder, and acts of incendiarism 
were frequently perpetrated without any effort whatsoever on the part 
of the authorities to suppress this abominable state of affairs. If 
anything, the Turkish officials ajjpeared to encourage it, judging by 
the intensity of the boycott against trade with the Christians. 

Not content with having completely ruined the trade of Guemlek, 
which was in Greek hands, the Turks went so far as to damage the 
goods they imported, such as vegetables, fruit, etc., while on the other 
hand they destroyed the orchards and gardens of the place. To this 
end they employed the wildest anti-Greek elements, such as Kurds, 
Circassians, Albanians, Lazes, and others. Greek boatmen were re- 
placed by Turks, and the poor fishermen were obliged to give up their 
trade, as they were often attacked whilst fishing. 

More than two thousand peasants were starving because they dared 
not venture out into the fields and olive groves owing to danger both 
to their property and lives. It now became obvious to the inhabitants 
that their position was rendered more and more intolerable, so that 
they had no other alternative left them but to expatriate. Some 
villagers, however, ventured on the 9th of July, to the olive groves, 
but were attacked by the Kurds, who fired on them. One peasant, 
named Georgis Christou Tsoukla, was killed. The next day, the 
Turks again attacked the villagers, wounding one in the arm, and 
anotlier in the leg. 

The commercial and industrial boycott ruined the trade and pros- 
perity of this Diocese, and although it had started at the time of the 
l)roclamation of the Constitution, never grew to such intensity as 
during the Balkan and the European Wars. Tlie Greek element of 
Kupli, Vezerhan, Lefki, Ortakeuy, Hondi, Mihalitch, and Kermasti, 
was literally ruined by the economic war waged against them by the 
Turks. The newly created villages of Biledjik, Yeni-Shehir, Kara- 
klisse, Bozycuk, Lasli, and Kupi, no less prosjjerous, boasting of 
Churches and schools, were likewise com})letely done away with. 
Mihalitch and Kermasti, together with the adjoining villages (Koum- 
keuy, Azatli, and Lopadi) were frightfully damaged. At Keumkeuy, 
which was teni})orarily evacuated. Pope Christos was mutilated by the 



The boycott which was at first secretly conducted, and later on 
enforced openly, was the principal calamity that befell this district 
(fourteen communities and 27,524 inhabitants) during 1914 and sub- 
sequent years. 

Turks armed with clubs, and paid for the purpose, scoured the 
market place, th.reatening and ordering the shop-keepers to close their 
establishments. Peasants on their way to Broussa, for the sale of 
their products there, were daily arrested, plundered, and forced to 
return to the villages whence they came. The same thing happened 
to the villages of Triglia, Siyi, and Moudania. 

Under such conditions, the inhabitants, more especially the mer- 
chants, were kept in a state of constant anxiety, not to mention the 
perpetration of murders, whicli greatly alarmed them. 

On the 8th of July, 1914, Panayiotos Nafeloudis, a native of 
Moudania, was found murdered near a Turkish village, Ghiorgeli. 
On the 18th of the same month, the community of Eligmi was re- 
peatedly attacked by armed Turks, who entered the village in large 
numbers, and killed D. Barouti, I. Behlou, and A. Tsouli, and mor- 
tally wounded A. Tsangalo. At the same time, Anastassis Savoglou 
and Savas Hadji Savoglou, natives of Kalassani, were found murdered, 
close to the Turkish village Paladari. 

This state of affairs made such an impression on the minds of 
the inhabitants of this district that the wealthier class decided to 
depart to wherever safety was available. 

No intercourse was allowed between the Metropolitan of Broussa 
and the Christians. He was confined to his Bishopric, and soldiers 
were posted in front of the entrance. 

During the European War, the boycott was no longer considered 
an effective measure against the inhabitants of the Greek element. 
The C.U.P. changed their policy, their plan being this time to deport 
the Greeks to Turkish villages, where they would in time become 
amalgamated with the Turkish element, and lose by degrees both 
their language and religion. This plan was acted upon ever since 
June, 1915. 

1. SIYI. — This village was besieged by the Turks, and its in- 
habitants ordered to Derekeuy. Only the things absolutely neces- 
sary could be taken away, such was the rapidity with which they 
were deported. The vicar of Moudania was not allowed to visit Siyi. 


2. TRIGLIA. — Ordered to evacuate the place, the wealthier 
class of the inhabitants of this village opened their shops and started 
distributing oil, rice, sugar, etc., to the poor, but were prevented 
from continuing further distribution by the Government officials. One 
Church was turned into a Mosque. Houses were demolished. 

SOPOLIS. — These villages were also evacuated abruptly, and nothing 
could be taken away by the deported. 

The Vali of Broussa, Midhat Bey (editor of the newspaper Silah) 
gave orders that none of the refugees should be allowed to go from 
village to village. Anyone transgressing the order would be severely 
dealt with. 

Remonstrations were made by the Metropolitan of Broussa, Doro- 
theos, but were of no avail. The same Vali ordered, in July, 1916, 
the refugees to be distributed among the Turkish villages at a propor- 
tion of 10 per cent, of their inhabitants. That this measure was not 
adopted out of sympathy or care for the welfare of the Christain re- 
fugees is obvious, and shows that he was simply following out an 
organised plan by the C.U. Phad, having as an object to convert them 
to Mohammedanism. All property stored by the refugees in the 
Churches was not allowed to be recovered by them, as this, and even 
the Churches themselves, were considered by the Vali as belonging 
henceforward to the Moslems. 

In July, 1916, the Churches of Neohori and Arvanitohori were 
forced open by the Turks who carried off much of the property de- 
posited in them, to the amount of twelve wagon loads, which were 
transported to Broussa. Government officials broke open the Church 
of Siyi, took away two cases containing silver lamps, and other sacred 
vessels, and despatched them to the seat of the vilayet, and when 
questioned as to why these things were being carried away, the Vali 
assured the people of their safety. 



This diocese composed of forty-three communities, s^ith a popula- 
tion of 41,331 souls, failed to escape the fatal consequences of 
boycott and deportation. Turkish bands engaged for the purpose 
visited the villages and prevented the customers from entering (ireek 
shops, while preachers from the top of the minarets incited tlie Turks 
to take even severer steps for making tlie boycott more efficacious. 
The communities of Balikesser, Sikaminea, Geltze, Diavati, Upper 
and Lower Neohori, and Smavlo, suffered from the boycott as well 
as from plundering and persecutions carried on in the very presence 


of the Government officials. Artaki, Sidirye, Pandemia, and Balia 
fared none the better. 

It is a remarkable fact that, despite the promises made by the 
Minister of the Interior, Talaat Bey, to the Christian population of 
Panderma that he would stop the boycott, it was applied with even 
greater severity each time, proving the duplicity of the Turks in their 
dealings with the Christian populations. 

(«) Deportations in 1914. 

The deportation of the Christian populations began by the inde- 
pendent Sandjak of Karassi, notwithstanding their protests, and in- 
cluded tlie purely Christian villages of Tach-Kisse, Koupassi, Hadji- 
Boghon, Mandiri, Yeni-keuy, Kodja-Bounar, Aladja-Bair, Teipelen, 
Souyout, Alaklissa, Karaidin, and Ivrindi. This was in April, 1914." 
A number of the Christians were conducted to Balia and the Interior 
of Asia Minor ; the others crossed over to the European coast. No 
sooner were these villages evacuated than they were occupied by 
Pomak Moslems. 

All the Greek subjects of Balia, including those belonging to the 
new provinces annexed to Greece, were deported, to be followed by 
the Christian Ottoman subjects in whose houses the government had 
established Turkish immigrants, under pretext of forming a national 
guard, but obviously with the object of intimidating the Christians. 

On the 5th July, 1911., Constantinos Paraskevas, a native of Eski- 
keuy (Diocese of Kolonia), was found strangled in his small house, 
close to the village of Al-Tsali, at a distance of one hour and a half 
from Balia, where he had established himself some years ago. The 
Turks of the above village had warned him about a month before that 
unless he quitted the Ottoman territory he would be molested, and 
about a fortnight before this his house had been broken into and 
pillaged. On the 15th of the same month Demitri Spanos was found 
murdered in his mill, in the Turkish village of Kodja-Avsar ; a cer- 
tain Stavros Georgiou, a native of Ivrindi, was also killed. These 
two men were in the employ of the Balia Mining Society. On the 
22nd May, 1914, two rascally Turks of the village of Poussoumler 
went to the sheepfold of Nicolas Kelebeli, at Sindiryi, and asked his 
son for bread and food, and on obtaining what they wanted they 
attacked him with their stick and knives, saying : *'You may well 
write to your Patriarchate, you infidels, we shall annihilate you." 
Finally, they bound their victim and left, carrying away with them 
eighty-five sheep. Such an attempt at murder greatly alarmed the 
community of Sindiryi, and their fear increased still further by the 
Turkish students from Balikesser, at the beginning of July, 1914, 
marching through the streets singing a song of hatred and revenge 
against the Greeks. 

On the 2nd August, 1914, a boy of fifteen years old, named 
Christos Vassiliou Sariyannis, was found slaughtered at Mylos, a coun- 
try place, ten minutes distant from Artaki. The authorities to whom 
the perpetrator of this crime was known, instead of arresting him, 


put the victim's father into prison, and kept him there for months 
as having been the cause of his son's death. Towards the end of 
September, a young Turk, twenty years old, beat the priest Loukas 
of the village of Edindjik, an old man of eighty-five, and broke his 
arm and leg. He was taken to the Greek hospital, where he died 
of his wounds. On the 20th October, Panayiotis Georghiou and his 
son George were found atrociously slaughtered in the mill, half an 
hour distant from Artaki. 

On the 8th December, Turks disguised as soldiers, attacked a 
mill close to Artaki, beat the miller, Paul A. Konnou and his host, 
and retired carrying away all the flour they found in it. 

(^) Deportations in 1915. 

The accusation that they supplied enemy submarines was falsely 
brought against the inhabitants of this district during the European 
War. The evacuation of certain communities was ordered and their 
inhabitants sent to the interior of Asia Minor. 

1. BALAT, and 2. KEPSIT.— These villages were evacuated 
in May, 1915. The Turks attacked the Church of Kepsit, desecrated 
the sacred vessels, tore up the vestments and church books, and broke 
open the safe. 

3. MOUSSATZA, 4. HAVOUTSI.— On the 2nd June, 1915, 
more than 500 Turks entered the village of Havoutsi, committing all 
kinds of atrocities and threatened the life of Poj^e Constantinos. He 
escaped murder by paying a ransom. The inhabitants of the two 
villages were expelled and sent to Guionen. 

5. KOl'RSOULI. — Armed bands of savage Turks attacked the 
village, and burnt two persons alive after having dipi)ed them into 
petroleum. The dead bodies of the two victims were i)hotographed 
by the International Commission, sent there for the purpose of in- 
vestigation. In July, 1915, the inhabitants were deported to Mi- 

6. KASTELI, 7. MIHANIONA.— After much persecution 
the inhabitants were expelled on July 15 to the villages of the interior 
of Panderma. 

8. PERGAMOS. — This place was destroyed by a fire, and was 
evacuated in September, 1915. 

N.B. — The inhabitants of Genia were also exiled, but on their 
arrival at the islet of Kyra they were ordered to repatriate. 



After the tremendous damage done by the earthquake to this 
diocese (thirteen conmiunities and 81,400 inhabitants), persecution 
put its finishing hand to its ruin. The sui)plying of submarines was 
taken as a pretext to justify the deportation of the inhabitants of 
this and other dioceses, as proved by the following confidential decla- 
ration made by Mehmet Ali Bey, military commander, to a Greek 
inliabitant of Pandemia on his honour and faith : 

•'Listen," said he, "swear that you will keep this to yourself. 
What is said about supplying submarines is only a pretext. The fact 
of the matter is that we have orders to exterminate the 'Rum' 
(Turkish : signifying the Greek Ottoman subjects). The places 
evacuated by the Greeks will be populated by Turkish immigrants 
from Samos, Imbros, and Lemnos." In reply to the question put 
by the Greek as to what would become of so many thousands of 
Christians he said : "They will all die in the interior of Asia Minor." 

1. KOUTAIJS.— In Febru^iry, 1918, it having been told to the 
authorities that the Christians were arming, a torpedo boat, having 
on board the sub-governor of Artaki and 100 gendarmes, was des- 
patched here. 

On landing, everyone was ordered under jjenalty of death not to 
stir from their places. Plundering followed, during which the houses 
were searched, chests broken open, and all valuables and even kitchen 
utensils, etc., carried away. 

In May, 1918, the inhabitants of the island were deported to the 
Mihalitsi district, after much suffering as usual. In June, the de- 
portation of the following villages was ordered. 

PASH-LIMAN, 11. SKOUPIA, 12. VERI. Only the inhabitants 
of the Afficia were exceptionally allowed to remain, because they were 
employed in the neighbouring quarries. 

The sufferings of the unfortunate inhabitants of these villages are 
indescribable. The Turkish authorities very often shut them up in 
stables without providing in any way for them, and left them to 
starve and shiver with cold in a most cruel way. 

At Pandemia, the halting place of all refugees destined for the 
interior of Asia Minor, a poor father was obliged to carry his two 
dead sons and bury them with his own hands, and without the 


assistance of a priest or any one else. At Oktehe-Guiol, the refugees 
were obliged to bury their dead after previously digging the graves 
themselves. In a desperate condition these poor wretches endured 
no end of suffering. The reports received at the Patriarchate prove, 
in a most categorical manner, the wanton neglect and inhumanity 
shown by the Turkish Government and officials towards these un- 
fortunate creatures, whom they seem to consider unworthy of any 
notice or protection. 

We have an undeniable proof of the truth of this assertion, in 
the numerous deaths that occurred during the deportation and exile 
of the inhabitants of this Diocese, as also a further one in their 
endeavours to convert them. This was the language used by the 
Turks to the poor class of refugees, who went about begging : "You 
have been supplying the submarines. There is no bread for you. 
You will all die of hunger unless you become Mussulmen. If 3'ou do 
so, we will give you bread." 

The property in houses and furniture left behind by the Christians 
who were deported were not taken care of by the Government. 
Although the Greek Churches and houses were closed and sealed up, 
the arrival of the governor of Bali-Kesser, accompanied by the sub- 
governor of Artaki and by the Committee of Bali-Kesser for the safe- 
guard of the fortunes of the evacuated districts at Artaki, was the 
signal for the work of destruction to begin. The Committee set to 
work breaking the seals, opening shops and houses and emptying them 
of their contents. Previous to this the Mayor of Artaki officially in- 
formed the public that those who wished to acquire certain specified 
articles should apply to the Committee, ad hoc, at the offices of Mar- 
mara. Sailing vessels full of furniture, mattresses, bedsteads, etc., 
kept daily arriving at Artaki. The Bishopric was broken open and 

The abandoned villages were then populated by Pomac immi- 
grants from Bali-Kesser, who were brought over by sailing vessels, 
stolen from the Greeks, but whose Greek crews were kept on, con- 
tributing in a great measure towards the establishment of the Moslems 
in their own dwellings. 


Constant and repeated levying of heavy taxes, coupled with the 
enforcing of a severe boycott, soon brought about the crisis of this 
Diocese (twenty-seven Communities and 27,257 Christian inhabitants). 
Such was especially the case with Biga. 

The richer inhabitants went over to Constantinople, and the 
poorer classes sold their furniture at generous prices in order to sub- 


sist, so that the community became more and more depopulated. 
This commercial boycott was extended to Lapsaki, Bairmitch, Ezine, 
even to Dardanelles itself, with particular ruthlessness, the Turks even 
going so far as to beat those of their co-religionists who bought of 
the Christian shops. Aziz, Mayor of the Dardanelles and Chairman 
of the Society formed for the i)urpose of importing colonial goods, 
in competition of the existing Greek establishments, used all his in- 
fluence and power to get rid of them and have them replaced by 

On the 11th June, 1914, Mehmet Eff., one of the wildest mem- 
bers of the local Committee, thus addressed some Moslems who were 
buying bread from the oven of a Christian named Vazoutos : *'The 
money you give to the infidels goes to Greece, and it is used for the 
manufacture of projectiles which will pierce your hearts." The same 
man, on another occasion, thus addressed a crowd of Moslems : "The 
Greeks are our mortal enemies. They are a nation of traitors. They 
send money to Greece. Learn therefore, oh Moslems, that either 
they must be expelled, or we must not remain here." 

Persecutions in 1914. 

Unable to cope any longer with the heavy taxes levied, nor to 
put up with the repeated subscriptions imposed on them, the inhabi- 
tants of 

emigrated in March, 1914, and crossed over to the European coast, 
but apart from the ruin to the Greek element through the boycott, 
the same symptoms appeared here as in Thrace, and forced its inha- 
bitants to emigrate by thousands. 

the 7th of May, 1914, 800 Albanian Moslems were landed at Koum- 
kale. They evicted the Christians and established themselves in their 
abodes after the usual savage ill-treatment awarded to them. The 
peasants, terror-stricken at seeing their property destroyed made their 
way to Renkeuy. 

The inhabitants of Neohori embarked for Greece. After every 
effort on the part of the Metropolitan to bring them back to their 
homes failed, those of Yeni-Shehir and Kalafatli also went over to 
Greece. The Governor of the Dardanelles declared that it was im- 
possible to allow the Christian inhabitants of Yeni-Shehir and other 
villages to return to their homes, following an order from the Min- 
istry of War to the effect that it was absolutely necessary that all the 
villages bordering on the sea-coast should be exclusively inhabited by 

7. KARADAGH, 8. EZINE.— The inhabitants of these two 
villages, threatened with famine, were expelled in a few hours to the 
coast and thence embarked for Greece. Some Christians at Ezine 
asked the sub-governor for protection, with the only result that he 
told them to imitate the example of the inhabitants of Neohori. 


9. NARLI, 10. PAPAZLI and 11. ADA-TOPE.— On the 
25th of May, the Christians were mercilessly turned out of their 
dvvelUngs and driven to the coast, where they sought transport to 
take them away. 

12. The inhabitants of MEGHA-TCHEPNE, IS. MICRO- 
KEUY, and 23. INDJE-KEUY, were deported to Greece. 

24. RENKEUY. — This community was evacuated in Septem- 
ber. The following communication was written by Irineos, Metropo- 
litan of the Dardanelles, under date of the 7th of September : 

''On the 4th September, a committee composed of the Governor 
of the Dardanelles, two officers, and two political officials, went to 
Renkeuy, and called up the members of the town council and several 
of the notables. 

•'In the first place the Governor informed them that, in accord- 
ance with a decision taken by the Government, the Christians must 
leave. The Christians quite naturally protested, and asked for ex- 
planatioHS as to the reasons that prompted the Government to act 
so cruelly towards so many thousand people, and added that, if it 
were a question of military operations, they should at least be allowed 
to retire to the interior of the country, until the crisis was over. They 
alluded to the loyalty they had at all times given proof of to the State, 
referred to the sacrifices which they so willingly underwent for the 
good of the Empire, and begged the Government to spare their Com- 

"Although I was told by the Governor not to go, I went to Ren- 
keuy, just at the time this meeting was being held. I explained also 
to the Committee the magnitude and the gravity of the situation 
created, and asked for time to be given us to come to an understand- 
ing with tlie Patriarchate. The Governor refused to accept my pro- 
posal, and ordered the Christians to comply with the order within 
twenty-four hours, the necessary means of transport having already 
arrived at Renkeuy. 

*'The Community had been surrounded on the eve of the Gover- 
nor's arrival, and even machine guns had been posted on the 
neighbouring heights of the village. The only flour mill the village 
possessed was occupied by the troops, as well as the ovens. The 
water-supi)ly ran short owing to their i)reseiice, the cattle were carried 
away by force, and under threat of i)unishment, all operations of buy- 
ing or selling were strictly prohibited. 

"At eiglit o'clock in the evening the mudir communicated to the 
Christians, on behalf of the Governor, that the resolution of the 
Government regarding their deportation to a foreign country, or 
rather to Greece, was final, and that, as he had to consider any refusal 
of the notables to abide by the order as a defiance to the decisions 
of the State, he was going to give orders to the commander of the 
machine-gun battery to attack the village, and allow the brigands who 


were outside the village to enter and plunder it. A delegation of 
notables thereupon called on the Governor and declared to him that, 
once the decision of the Government was final, and their demands 
could not be granted, the jjeople were prepared to comply with the 
order reserving to tliemselves their rights. They pointed out most 
emphatically tliat they wanted it to be fully understood that it was 
not of their own free-will that they were leaving, and under protest. 
Thus did the essentially Greek conmiunity of Renkeuy, once so pros- 
perous and flourishing, die out. On the morrow of the order, the 
inhabitants embarked and went to Greece." 

25. BIG A. — The boycott and persecution had already obliged 
some of the inhabitants to leave this village and in July, 1914, more 
families emigrated. 

What befell the other districts in the way of murder, violation, 
etc., befell this one too. In Ak-Saz, between the 10th and 14th 
May, 1914, the following : Stratis Toulakis, Nicolaos Kalpakis, and 
Michail Fotinis, were murdered. Anastassia L. Tzouli was violated. 
In Lampsaco, two shepherds, Margaritis and Vassilios, were murdered. 
Christodoulos Mitsou, and the sailors of Artaki, Dem. Emmaaouil, 
and Spiros Selimiades were beaten, and then tortured to death. At 
the Dardanelles, a shepherd, Athanassios Mihaloglou, was beaten till 
blood came out of his mouth. The shepherd boy, Nicolas Tsolakis, 
seventeen years old, was stabbed by a Moslem, who tried to violate 
him. Alexis G. Louli's ear was cut off, Demitri loannou was wounded 
at Karadagh on his way to Renkeuy, and reached Tcliomak-Kale with 
difficulty. At Neohori, four young girls were violated by the gen- 

Deportations in 1915. 

For Military reasons the Government, in February, 1915, ordered 
the immediate evacuation of Tchanak-Kale, and the transfer of its 
inhabitants to Artaki. But in June, 1915, the refugees of Tchanak- 
Kale were embarked on sailing vessels and steamships, and sent to 
Panderma by order of the governor of Bali-kesser. The crossing was 
a dreadful one owing to the crowding of the passengers on the boats, 
so that a woman slipped and fell into the sea, and was drowned. On 
arrival at Panderma station, the refugees were prevented from com- 
municating with the inhabitants of the town, and after three days 
were carried by rail to Balikesser. The majority of the inhabitants 
of Iyami)sako were exiled after having suffered a good deal during 
the persecutions in 1914. The remaining population was expelled in 



Already at the outbreak of the Balkan War, acts of pillage and 
robbery 'had started in the town and diocese of Aivali (six commu- 
nities, 26,387 inhabitants), forcing the Greek element to leave. The 
boycott spread all over the country, followed by persecutions. On 
the 22-24 May, 1914, the inhabitants of the villages of Yaka-keuy, 
Gumetch, Kemerkeuy, and Ayazmati fled to Aivali with their chil- 
dren in their arms. In consequence of the declaration made to them 
by the Caimacham of Gumetch, to the effect that he would take no 
responsibility whatsoever, he advised the peasants to temporarily quit 
their dwellings until things settled down again, and they all went 
to Aivali. On their way, however, they were attacked by wild gangs 
of armed Turks, who stripped them of their money and clothes, beat 
them, and violated four girls. They were then forced to embark on 
benzine steam launches and lighters, and sent to Mitylene. 

Shortly after the evil spread to the whole Aivali Region, which 
was plundered by the Turkish bands to the extent of thousands of 
pounds of damage. 

After the evacuation of the four aforementioned villages, and the 
pillaging of the farms in the neighbourhood of Aivali, the village of 
Yenitsarohori was attacked on the 27th May, 1914, by Turkish 
immigrants, who set fire to seven points simultaneously. Terror 
stricken, the peasants fled to the town. One thousand five hundred 
of them, in spite of the assurances of the authorities as to the safety 
of their lives, honour, and property, took refuge in Mitylene. The 
situation of Aivali itself became very critical. The evacuation of the 
town was expected at any moment. 

On one occasion, Nouri Bey, chief of the gendarmerie, told Gre- 
gory, the Metropolitan of Aivali : 

"The Government does not exi)el you, but we will not oppose 
the desire of the Nation. Only two towns now remain, Smyrna and 
Aivali ! You will also have to go." 

In consequence of the foregoing events the Metropolitan of Aivali 
addressed the following note to Talaat Bey, Minister of Interior, 
then staying at Aivali. 

The following is a translation of the letter. 

"Your Excellency, 

"As the spiritual head of the inhabitants of Aivali, exclusively 
Greek Orthodox, I beg to bring to your notice the sad events which 


have taken place these last days, and which have so moved the whole 
population, and to acquaint you with the real causes that gave rise 
to them. 

''On Wednesday last, notices, bearing the seal of the Governor, 
Nedjim Oulah Effendi, were posted up. The public were informed 
that emigration was prohibited. As, however, the sentence 'emigra- 
tion is prohibited' implies that a current in favour of emigration did 
exist, allow me to throw some light on this question. Not a single 
citizen, whether big or small, rich or poor, had ever thought of ex- 
patriating, as it is given to be understood by the official notice. On 
the contrary, every one's mind was bent on his work. I feel confi- 
dent that neither the Governor, nor the Officer in Connnand, and 
the other officers of the army, the President of the Interior Court, 
the delegate of the Public Prosecutor, the Directors of the Custom 
House, of the Public Debt administration, as well as the Chiefs 
of the Gendarmerie and the Police, will ever refuse to certify authen- 
ticity of this fact that such was the real state of mind of the popula- 
tion, and it is only because I firmly believe this that I appeal to the 
testimony of all tlie above high officials to establish the truth of my 

'* Nevertheless, no later than ten days ago, it was reported that 
the Christian inhabitants of Karaghatch, and the neighbouring villages, 
Gumetch, Yaya, Kerem, and Ayasmati, had been forced to expatriate 
by unknown persons, who, moreover, seized their property including 
their furniture, horses and cows, and in fact everything they possessed. 

"The majority of the peasants thus expatriated took refuge in 
Aivali. They apj)lied to the Bisliopric declaring they had been forced 
to ex|)atriate, and asking for assistance to enable them to return to 
their homes in order to force the inhabitants of Aivali to emigrate. 
Also the Turks attacked the Aivaliets working in their fields, and 
plundered their sheep, oxen and homes. After having comi)lained to 
the Governor, they came to the Bishopric, where their statements 
were taken down in writing. 

•'Aggressions and plunder have now spread far and Mide, so that 
the farms of Aysasmati belonging to Aivaliets, were plundered and 
thousands of sheep carried away and important fortunes stolen. 
Churches were ransacked and holy images desecrated. In the town 
of Aivali itself certain Moslems made it a point to advise the Christians 
to deport, that being the only means of saving their lives. But 
although the Aivaliets suffered greatlv from these oppressions, they 
felt they could rely on the Government for protection, and it was this 
confidence that i)rompted tftem not to expatriate. 

"The village of Yenitsarchori, twent}^ minutes from here, has 
now been attacked, and armed Moslems of the vicinity tried to burn 
it by setting fire to the doors of some houses. But on the morrow 
at dawn, all the inhabitants with their families abandoned the village 
and proceeded to Aivali. 

"And although the Aivaliets are terror stricken by these events, 
they still cannot make up their minds to emigrate and abandon their 
town and property which, at the price of much toil and activity, they 

65 F 

had rendered so flourishing. They declare they cannot emigrate to a 
foreign land, and so abandon their fortunes, churches, and the tombs 
of their forefathers. They have decided to remain in their country 
and to continue to live there as Christians with the same feelings of 
loyalty towards the State as hitherto. 

•'In making to you these formal declarations on behalf of the 
Christian inhabitants, I request that you will be so kind as to take 
the necessary steps to avoid a repetition of these attacks and plunders 
on the part of Moslems of the neighbouring villages, with whom the 
Christians have so far lived in harmony, that the plundered goods 
and cattle should be returned to their rightful owners, the young girls 
taken by main force be released, and, lastly, that the culprits be 
severely dealt with and punished according to the law." 

In response to this appeal, the next day the sub-governor issued 
a proclamation to the effect "that the people should attend to their 
business, that the Greek Ottomans need not have any apprehension 
regarding their expatriation, which is strictly prohibited." Despite 
these assurances however, the conduct of the Government proved that 
the contrary was to be expected, and that the expulsion of the in- 
habitants was imminent. 

Firstly tlie town was closely blockaded. Insecurity prevailed in 
the country districts. Armed bands of Turks, recruited and led by 
civil and military officials, terrorised the country, murdering and com- 
mitting atrocities. The small houses in the fields, vineyards, or olive 
plantations were either set fire to, or demolished, and the agricultural 
implements stolen. 

Even in the town itself, the lives, honour and property of the 
population were threatened, with a view to creating an intolerable 
situation and so oblige them to expatriate. 

Churches were desecrated, chapels demolished or concerted into 
Mosques, stables, or coffee houses. Graves were dug up, and the 
bones of the dead scattered abroad. The advice to the Christians from 
Government officials was to leave for Greece as the only means of 

The situation gradually became worse, and in order to increase 
the existing panic of the inhabitants, the Government arrested twelve 
of its notables and deported them to Balikesser. 

The sub-governor established in the town twenty Black Sea pirates 
(Lazes), who, armed to the teeth, roamed about the streets, subjecting 
the inhabitants to all kinds of persecution. They further plundered 
their houses, and divided the spoil with the officials in authority. 

The inhabitants, numbering 7,000, unable finally to endure any 
longer such sufferings, decided to abandon their homes and fortunes, 
and emigrate from their native soil. 

There was no end to the mart^^rdom to which the remaining in- 
habitants were subjected. Their Hfe, honour, and their fortunes, were 
simply considered as playthings by the Moslems. 

An attempt at general deportation was made on the 15th Septem- 
ber, 1915. Two hundred and seventy two citizens of all ranks, in- 
cluding the Metropolitan, the grand Vicar and three priests, were 


arrested, and conducted under military escort to an unknown desti- 
nation. However, some days later, they all returned from Klisse- 
Keuy to which place they had been deported. 

It now became evident that Aivali, this stronghold of Hellenism 
in Asia Minor, was doomed to ruin, for on the 15th of March, 1917, 
the expulsion of the Aivaliets began. The town was occupied by 
three battalions of troops from Soma, by order of the Military Com- 
mander of the region, Vahid Bey, which arrived in the evening. 
Before dawn, strong detachments overran the different quarters oi Inc 
town, and arrested all its male inhabitants from 15 years upwards. 
The women and children were turned into the streets, and only five 
minutes time was given them in which to remove their furniture and 
clothing. The gradual evacuation of the town was continued under 
these auspices, and completed by the .SOth April, 1917. 

The population was scattered over the Broussa and Smyrna 
vilayets and the district of Karassi. About 256 persons were withheld 
exclusively for the requirements of the army, as well as two priests 
and the Metropolitan who were subjected to very hard treatment. 

The Metropolitan of Aivali was kept in close confinement in his 
Bishopric from the 23rd January to the 1st of May, 1917, and was 
then sent to Smyrna under escort. He was imprisoned and deprived 
of every communication with the outside world until the 19th October, 
1919, the date of the conclusion of the Armistice. 

The misery of the i)oor people would be hard to describe after 
they were scattered among the inhospitable, miserable Turkish villages, 
where they were severed from every other Christian element besides 
being exposed to every kind of privation. 

The cyphered order of Talaat to the Provincial Authorities, as 
reported by a Turkish high official, contained two words only : 
•*Feft-i-medeni" (civil murder). And in carrying out this order, no 
exception was made with regard even to forty -one orphans, in charge 
of the Grand Vicar of the Bisliopric, Arsene Menexes, who were con- 
ducted to Biledjik. The pre-eminently Greek town of Aivali was 
destroyed, the altars of the churches were desecrated, its chapels de- 
molished or turned into stables, and its shoi)s plundered and left in 

On the 27th of . Juh', 1917, the Metropolitan of Aivali writes : - 
*'The plundering of the establishments and shops by the soldiers and 
others which lasted the whole of the Ramazan, still continues. No 
one interferes with the plunderers, who having all the means of trans- 
port at their disposal, are allowed to carry away their spoil. Thus 
with the acquiescence of the Authorities, all the wealth of the Chris- 
tians has passed into Turkish hands, and has been carried away from 
the town. 

"The government requisitioned, on the plea that they were re- 
quired for the Army, thousands of copper utensils, chairs, mattresses, 
coverings, etc., deposited by the deported Greeks in their churches, 
bringing about the complete ruin of the Christians by depriving them 
of everything they possessed. These operations are now being officially 
carried out by the military authorities, on the basis of the Law in 


force, according to which it is allowed to lay hands on, or pay onerous 
prices (fixed by a terrorised commission) for anything that the Ad- 
ministration of the Army can make use of among the abandoned 
fortune,' , as our property is called. The question now arises how will 
the citizens, on their return, be accommodated, and their existence 
renderea possible, if the scanty effects that escaped plunder and were 
safely deposited in their churches, are being officially confiscated by 
the Authorities ?" 

The pre-meditated evacuation of this town by the Young Turks 
was carried out by the German General, Liman von Sanders Pasha, 
who, from the very moment he was appointed head of the military 
reorganisation commission, and later on in his capacity of Commander 
of the 5th Army Corps, incessantly pursued the annihilation of the 
Greek population of the sea coast of Asia Minor. There is no possible 
doubt whatever of the complicity of the General with regard to the 
deportation of the Aivaliets and the ruin of Aivali. There exist clear 
and positive declarations of authorised persons and those of the said 
General himself, which throw sufficient light on the question. These 
facts are mentioned in a report of the Metropolitan of Aivali, who 
can produce the necessary evidence in support of his assertions. 

The compiling of a complete list of persons who were murdered 
or otherwise persecuted is somewhat a difficult matter. Nevertheless, 
the following account will convey an idea of the extent of the savagery 
of the Turks, and the martyrdom at their hands of the unfortunate 
Christian Ottomans. 

(a) During 1914. 

On the 20th May, Dim. Kos. Vaxevanie was murdered by the 
Turks of Tsakalia. On the 23rd of the same month loannis Halvadjis. 
On the 2nd June, Haralambos Koumparakis, on his way to his busi- 
ness, was killed near Kourou-Tchesme. On the 3rd June, George 
Sakali, Dem. Boyadjis, and Const. Carabounari, were carried away 
by the Turks and murdered. The same day P. Sahanas, on his way 
to his garden, was killed. On the 5th June Efstratios Marinos went 
out to reap. He was also murdered. N. Kazakhs was on his way 
to his farm when lie was carried away by the Turks and murdered. 
His body was found without head, hands or feet. 

On the 11th June Panayiotis Voulgarelis was found murdered in 
the well of his farm, his body bearing many signs of knife wounds. 
Athan. Kouzamakis gave notice that his brother Triantafilos, along 
with Zaharia Limness and Efstratios Kardharas, who went out together 
some twenty-nine days before to Salahlar, disapi)eared. Christos Ka- 
rafonias, eighteen years old, went out to the fields to cut grass. He 
was killed by the Turks on the 25th June, his companion (leorge 
Kiriki managing to escape. Kyriazis Hadji Tdiobanis was killed by 
Turks on the 8th of July while he was working with his two brothers, 
Efstratios and Photios. Besides these, the names of a host of other 
victims appear in the list so far known. 


^h) After the evacuation of Aivali the following outrages 

took place. 

Tliree young girls, Tassi, Maria, and another Maria, aged res- 
pectively seven, nine, and twenty-two years, were violated by Turks 
at Mouratza. Athanasse Yerondelis, fifty-five years old, was beaten 
to death close to the village of Boyatitch. The next day his corpse 
was found torn to pieces by the dogs. George Yandouniis, sixty years 
old, was thrown by the cart-drivers in the river Lompatza, and 
drowned. A woman, Angheliki N. Ktistou, was empaled by three 
Turkish women near Mouratza. Aristea Martini, fifty years old, was 
beaten to death by a gendarme at Akkeuy. Dem. Kakavros, sixty 
years old, mercilessly beaten to death at Tourkmen by a gendarme. 
Hariclea Marangheli, fifty years old, after having her eyes put out 
at Koyounlou by Turks, went mad, and died soon after, (ieorge 
Ar[)ayianos, forty-five years old, was killed from club blows by the 
cart-drivers, because, being sick and infirm, he could not walk. 
Constantine Manolias Moschanissios was beaten to death. Tasitsa 
Pseftochristou, thirty years old, was strangled with a rope by the cart- 
drivers on the road to Tourkmen in the very presence of the gendarme 
whose care she was in. Georges Tsoukalas, four years, was tied behind 
a donkey and beaten the whole way to Tourkmen, which resulted in 
his death soon after. A .further list of names follows of jjersons of 
botli sexes deliberately done to death by the Turks. 


The same organised persecutions as applied elsewhere had been 
enforced by tlie official authorities, since the month of May, 1914, 
in the island of Moshonissi (poj)ulation 6,000 souls, exclusively Greek) 
owing to which the economic and commercial life of the comnmnity 
soon became problematic for the inhabitants, and resulting finally in 
their departure from their native soil. 

Those who remained on the island were condemned to a lament- 
able fate by the local authorities, for the arrival of a band of insurgents 
in the island added to the persecution of the inhabitants. The in- 
habitants were then deported to Aivali without taking anything with 

In Aivali they shared the same fate of oppression with its in- 
habitants until they were all deported, and scattered among the 
Turkish villages of the vilayet of Smyrna and Broussa. There they 

lived for twenty long months, daily subjected to all kinds of persecu- 
tions and dying in great numbers. 

Real acts of vandalism followed the expulsion of the inhabitants 
of Moshonissi. Churches were turned into warehouses and stables, 
the lamps and holy images in them were broken, paintings of art 
destroyed and houses rendered uninhabitable. 


No Greek centre suffered more from the hatred of the Turks than 
the district of Smyrna. 

This flourishing and prosperous district numbering . twenty-four 
communities, and a Greek population of 200,570 inhabitants wa^ sure 
to feel and be more directly affected by the policy of extermination 
practised by the Young Turks than any other. 

The unfortunate Christians of the Interior, abandoning their 
farms, their unreaped fields, their tobacco plantations, their vineyards 
full of grapes, and their valuable cattle, resorted to Smyrna in the 
hope of saving what S^as still left to them as well as their lives and 

1. GUERENKEUY.— This village was assaulted on the night 
of the 29th of May, 1914, by bands of armed Turks under the com- 
mand of the Chief of the Gendarmerie of Menemen. It was set fire 
to. At first the inhabitants withstood the attack, but were obliged 
later on to evacuate the place and flee with their families to the village 
of Serekeuy, at a distance of two hours. There they parted, one com- 
pany going down to the sea shore where they embarked for Mitylene, 
the other taking lefuge in Menemen and Smyrna. 

The Metropolitan of Smyrna, Chrysostom, demanded from the 
Vali of Smyrna, Rahmi Bey, the permission for the latter to return to 
their homes, in conformity with the promise made to him by Rahmi 
Bey. The Vali, however, established in the meanwhile Moslem emi- 
grants in the village of Guerenkeuy and refused to receive a deputa- 
tion of the villagers when they solicited his protection. 

Therefore the second train of Christians of the village of Gueren- 
keuy also embarked for Mitylene. 

The Ciiurch, school, and half of the village houses were burnt. 
The following are the victims of the fire : Evangelos Spirou Kehaya, 
Nasselos with his small child, Manolis Tsalapassis, Jean Smyrnadis, 
Panayiotis Tsoulios, Petros E. Tsouglas, Georgios Mougharakis, and 


G. P. Kambako. Besides these, a great number were dangerouslj' 

2. SOYOUDJOUK. — Five hundred armed Turks surrounded this 
village on the 31st May, 1914. The brigands started firing and the 
inhabitants responded in defence. A regular combat ensued lasting 
six hours, with the result that the peasants, unable to resist the fero- 
cious attacks of the Turks, left the village and crossed over to the 
adjacent islet wlience they witnessed the plundering of their property 
and the burning of their homes. Shortly after they embarked for 

3. BAGH-ARASSI, and 4. BARES.— The inhabitants were 
expelled under the same circumstances and conditions, and resorted 
to Greece. 

5. OLD FOGGIA.— On the 23rd May, 1914, the Chief of Gen- 
darmerie of Menemen, Talaat Bey, visited this conmiunity, and having 
come to an understanding with the sub-governor and the Turkish 
notables, and drawn up the plan of destruction, undertook a trip to 
the surrounding Turkish villages, and gave the Turks an outline of 
the plan of destruction agreed upon. On the 31st of May, 1914, the 
village was surrounded at night by hordes of armed Turks from the 
neighbouring heights ; the attack on the village then began. The 
plundering lasted all the night through and continued till mid-day 
the next day. 

The fury of the Turks against the Christians knew no bounds. 
The Mayor, Hassan Bey, massacred with his own hands his partner 
Dimitrios, his wife and two children, also the Kehaya, Hadja Kera- 
mida, as well as his wife and three children, killed Ath. Tutundji, 
Dimitri Tabaki and his father-in-law. He killed the daughter of 
Emmanuel Kouyoumdji, after having violated her, and cut the throat 
of Sophia Ghounari and her four children. Alti Parmak Hassan 
killed Stavros Manoglou and Ath. Koumarianos. 

Ali Bey, the director of the salt works of Phocoea, had the apo- 
thecary Papacostas and his niece cut to pieces, after having violated 
the latter. The tobacco Mudir, Ibrahim Effendi, murdered Basile 
Theodoracoglou, his nephew Panayioti, and his brother, and a host 
of others. 

The church of Saint Eirene was entirely plundered, and the altar 
desecrated. The cruel invaders climbed up the belfry and threw the 
cross down, after which a "muezzin" (Turkish preacher) sang a "hymn 
of thanksgiving" in honour of the conquest of the town. 

The day after the catastrophe a cargo boat, carrying many 
thousand of Phocoeans including 1,000 children, left the port for Sa- 
lonica. They were all in a lamentable condition. 

The details of this tragedy can be obtained from eye witnesses 
among whom were Mr. Laurence, professor at the American College, 
Mr. Sartiaux, an archeologist on a mission in Phocoea, Mr. Carlier, a 
French engineer, Mr. and Mrs. de Andria, Director of the Ottoman 
public debt, Mr. Edward Whittal, a merchant in Smyrna, Mr. I. Bel- 
homme, insurance agent, Mr. Vedova and Mr. Manciet, and a French 


archeologist, whose report of the 14th June, 1914, under tlie title 
of "The last day of Phocoea", we here reproduce in translation : 

*'On the 12th of June, towards half past six in the evening, I 
was working in the road leading from Phocea to Menemen, when all 
of a sudden to my surprise I saw a long train of people with their 
luggage coming along apparently in flight. I learnt that they came 
from Guerenkeuy to seek refuge in Phocoea, after having been plun- 
dered by the Turkish bands. The next day I was busy with a survey 
in one of the oldest streets of Phocoea. The inhabitants were in a 
state of great anxiety. Every one expected an imminent catastrophe.* 
I witnessed the great panic. The words 'they are coming' went from 
mouth to mouth, the street full of women and children rang with cries 
of consternation. Every one hastened to shut himself up in his home 
and barricade his door. In a few minutes the street was deserted. 
The panic was so great that I was carried away by the crowd of fugi- 
tives at a distance of twenty paces from my tripod. 

''Shortly after calm returned, but the fright of the population 
was such, that at mid-day, about 1,000 inhabitants embarked on fishing 
boats and went to Mitylene. We, Mr. Sartiaux and myself, were very 
astonished to see persons abandoning all their property before any 
enemy was in sight. The news of the approach of a band of armed 
Turks was successful. From that moment we began to realise the 
gravity of the situation. We were four Frenchmen, Mr. Sartiaux, 
the assistant of Mr. Carlier, Mr. de Andria and myself. After a short 
consultation between us we decided to call on the Caimacham, and 
ask him to take the necessary measures for our protection. The 
Caimacham, thinking we were afraid for ourselves, offered to give us 
shelter in his official residence. We refused, and declared to him 
that we held him responsible for whatever might happen. He tlien 
gave us each a gendarme for the protection of our four houses. 

•'W^e reached our homes and there made four French flags, which 
we hoisted over the doors of our houses. Our doors being wide open, 
a crowd of Christians took refuge within, bearing whatever precious 
object they could save. Thus we succeeded in giving shelter to 700 
to 800 souls. 

"During the night the organised bands began to plunder the 
town. At day-break brisk firing started in front of our houses. Mr. 
de Andria, Mr. Sartiaux and I, hastened outside only to witness one 
of the most horrible sights. Tliis band was armed witli Gras (old 
rifles) and cavalry carbines. A house broke into flames. The Ciiris- 
tians hastened to the quay in search of boats in which to embark. But 
not a single one had remained overnight in the port. Cries of terror 
mingled with the rejjort of the guns. The panic was such that a 
woman and her child were drowned in shallow water only sixty centi-i 
metres deep. Mr. Sartiaux was the witness of a horrible sight. A 
Christian, with his wife and daughter, was in his house. The brigands 
tried to enter it. The head of the family spread his arms to prevent 
them from entering, and received a bullet shot from a Gras in the 
abdomen, after which he tried to make his escape to the sea, but he • 
had only gone a few paces when a second bullet finished him. His 


corpse remained two days on the beach. His daughter, terror stricken, 
sought refuge in one of our houses, leaving her mother to be murdered 
in her house by the brigands. 

"Two large transports happened by mere chance to be in the port. 
We succeeded, all too slowly, to embark, those who escaped being in 
small groups. What would have happened if the two ships were not 
there ? Such was the hurry of the inhabitants to embark that several 
boats sunk owing to the weight of the passengers. The bandits, pre- 
tending to search for arms, plundered the fugitives of whatever was 
left to them. They snatched and pulled away the luggage and even 
the mattresses from old women. At the sight of this I remonstrated 
with the officer of the gendarmerie, who was impassively looking on, 
and told him that unless he put a stop to this I would take a gun and 
fire upon these marauders. This declaration was sufficient to put an 
end to the acts of brigandage, and the refugees were allowed to depart 
in peace and quietness. The brigands, however, broke open the 
houses and carried away their booty, loaded on horses and donkeys, 
and even camels. Three thousand persons had been able to embark 
that day on the two steamers, which left for Mitylene. A great por- 
tion of the population still remains. 

The night passed uneasily for the Greeks. The next day plun- 
dering continued regularly and methodically in all the houses. 
Presently, the wounded began coming to us. In the absence of 
medical assistance, I took charge of them until we could see them off 
to Mitylene. I noticed that, with the exception of two or three, the 
majority of the wounded were quite old people. Among them also 
were old women of ninety with bullet wounds. It was simply a 

*'On the following days, numerous families that had hidden in 
the mountains came to us for protection. W^e sent for the officer of 
the gendarmerie at once, of whom we demanded two gendarmes to 
go to the aid of those poor people, and escort them to Phocoea. He 
did nothing in the matter and up to this day we are ignorant of the 
fate of these poor creatures. An old paralytic man was found in his 
bed by the brigands, and also put to death in cold blood. 

"Troops were sent from Smyrna to maintain order. Soldiers 
patrolled tlie streets with a view to keeping order, instead of which 
they also took to plundering. We saw an instance of this on the 17th 
of the same month when we asked two gendarmes to escort a Chris- 
tian to his home, in order for him to take away some things he wanted. 
Unfortunately these very gendarmes, who were supposed to defend 
him against all aggression, were the first to strip this unfortunate 
man of everything he possessed, i.e., the sum of Fr.4.25. The 
destruction was complete. Every door was broken open. Whatever 
the brigands could not carry away was destroyed, so that the town 
of Phocoea, once so bright, is now a dead city." 

"There is no doubt whatever that the plundering of this town 
was an organised plan, which aimed at the expulsion of the ray as 
(Greek Ottoman subjects) from the sea coast. It is not possible that 


the invading brigands could have [)ossessed so many firearms if they 
had not been distributed to them beforehand. 

*'No resistance was offered on the part of the inhabitants of Old 
Phocoea ; they were the victims of a massacre. 

■"We now read in the i)apers official communications to the effect 
that order has been established, and that in the regions we mention no 
one need have any apprehension as to one's life and fortune. 

"As a matter of fact, order exists because there is not a single 
inhabitant left in the place. Also there is no danger to property 
either, it all being safely in the hands of the brigands." 

Mr. E. Whittal, a British resident of Smyrna, was an eye-witness 
of the following episode at the time when the armed brigands were 
pillaging the town of Old Phocoea. A young woman had jumped into 
a boat full of Christian fugitives. A brigand hastened to take her 
out of the boat, but he did not succeed in carrying away his prey ; 
on the contrary he was caught hold of by a firm hand, thrown to the 
bottom of the boat, carried away to Mitylene and delivered up to 
the authorities there. They took off his coat, under which he wore 
a gendarme's uniform, and found <£200 in his pocket. 

There is no doubt whatever from existing evidence that the 
Government officials were the real authors of the destruction of Old 

Shortly after the destruction of this beautiful Greek city, a 
letter was sent from Smyrna, addressed to the Mayor of Marseilles, 
begging him to intercede with the French Government, so that the 
authors of the destruction of Old Phocoea, the ancient metropolis of 
Marseilles, should be punished. The following is a translation from 
the French : 


"No doubt you have been informed of the tragic end of our un- 
fortunate country, the ancient home of our common ancestors who 
sallied forth carrying with them the sacred fire of civilisation to the 
hospitable coast of Gaul. 

"Phocoea to-day no longer exists. Barbarous hordes have 
destroyed everything and converted it into a ruin. On the ruins of 
the ancient city, from which they have effaced the last trace of civili- 
sation, these vandals keep their savage triumph to-day, whilst the 
descendants of the Ancient Phocoeans, starving outcasts, are left to 
contemplate, from the adjacent islands where they have taken refuge, 
the coasts they were obhged to abandon, where they witnessed the 
desecration of their ancestors' homes by the savage aggressors. 

"Illustrious children of the great and heroic family of which 
Marseilles is a precious member, Messieurs Sartiaux, Manciet, Carlier, 
and de Andria, defying the fury of the marauders, hoisted the French 
flag, and under its jwwerful protection, managed to rescue from a 
terrible and certain death more than 800 Phocoeans whom they after- 
wards assisted to embark and take refuge in the sisters Islands of 
Chio and Mitylene. To these gallant and courageous children of 


glorious and heroic France, witnesses of the tragic agony of Phocoea, 
we send our cordial gretings of gratitude, in whicli tiie French jjeople 
will no doubt join us. 

"To you, Sir, we address in desi)eration this appeal. Raise your 
mighty voice before the civilised world on behalf of our unfortunate 
Phocoea. In the name of our slaughtered brethren, in the name of 
the Holy Cross itself, taken off our Churches and replaced by the 
crescent, revenge us, your afflicted brethren. 

*'From the top- of our belfry tlie mouzzin proclaimed that the 
years of black slavery and cruel barbarism had returned. Let the 
town hall of our dear Marseilles become the high tribune whence it 
shall be announced to the world that the mouzzin told a gross lie, that 
Christianity will conquer, that civilisation will dazzle barbarism, and 
that the persecuted will be protected. 

•'Although exiled from our homes, scattered about in divers places 
and homeless, we do not solicit any material help. We exi)ect moral 
support and revenge for the outrage to Civilisation and Humanity 
wliich the forbearance of Europe has brought about ; forbearance that 
has permitted such massacres and such destructions to take place. 
It is a disgrace to Europe and civilisation at large that such barbarity 
should desecrate the soil of Phocoea. 

"Let your voice be heard on behalf of your unhappy brethren, 
appeal by means of the Press to the civilised world in order to rouse 
its interest in our indescribable sufferings. This is what we demand 
of you, Sir. The voice of our Mother, Cireece, can have no effect 
alas ! because it is too weak to be heard. 

"You alone in mighty France can help us to return to our homes. 

"In classic times Marseilles came to the rescue of Phocoea on two 
occasions, let it be for the third time that she does so. 

"Convinced that j^our efforts, to which will be added those of the 
entire civilised world, may help us in our appeal for justice, we beg 
to remain. Sir, etc., etc." 

This appeal was not fruitless. The Town Hall of Marseilles at 
once sent a telegraphic remittance of 20,000 francs as a relief. Order 
was given that the receipts taken one day at the theatres and other 
centres of amusement in the town should be devoted to the cause of 
the Phocoeans, and it was decided that steps should at once be taken 
with the French Government with regard to the appeal. 

In June, 1914, the village of Bournabat was attacked by a band 
of Turkish brigands. Miysos Tsobanis, a boy of 13 years, and Const. 
Chr. Carandrea were murdered. The father of the latter and his 
sister Gheorghitza were mortally wounded ; his mother was also 
wounded in the abdomen and breast, and one hand cut off. On 
the 28th of July, 1914, Mitso Cocaliaris was killed by five gun-shots 
and his body was burnt ; Manolis, an orphan, was beaten and nearly 
stoned to death. A certain Kostis Tsakiroglou was compelled to 
deliver his property to the secretary of the regiment in garrison under 
menace of being expelled. 

At Boudja, the gendarmes murdered Kostas Kokinis, a noble 
of Sevdi-keuy, on the 28 June, 1914, close to the railway station. At 


Sevdi-keuy, Constantinos Theofanakis was condemned to be hanged 
after being falsely accused that he murdered the mudir of tlie village 
whose bestial advances he refused to satisfy. Stamatios Soukialvanis 
was murdered. Panos Tzanopoulos and his brother Ghenias were 
mercilessly beaten by a gendarme because they refused to hand over 
to him their two sisters. At Bounar-baslii, loannis Karipis and Con- 
stantinos Tzanakis were severely wounded. 

At Smyrna, Giovani Souvadjoglou, a foreman of the Oriental 
Carpet Manufacturers, Ltd., was murdered by soldiers. Near the 
locality of Utch-Tepe, the guards of the farm of Haidar and Mehmet 
joined a band of seven brigands, and attacked, on July 14, Dem. 
Lambi Fokianou, Evangelos Tsikaliotou, and Panayioti Panas, and 
mercilessly tortured them. They cut off the nose and the ears of the 
last mentioned and the sexual organs of the third. 

All eatables supposed to provide for the needs of the Army were 
requisitioned with such thoroughness that the peasants were very often 
deprived of their bread. The Vali confiscated the beautiful edifice 
in marble, in the very centre of Smyrna, serving as dining-room of 
the students, and the seat of the Astronomical Society, and estab- 
lished 300 gendarmes in case of fire, contemplating it is said having 
recourse to this means for the destruction of the town. He did 
everything in his power to terrorise the people, and to even set fire 
to Smyrna. Indeed he threatened, in the presence of the Metro- 
politan of Ephesos and Smyrna, and of the town Councillors, M. 
Tsourouktsoglou, and Ch. Athanasoulas, to set fire to the town at 
the first shot fired from an enemy man-of-war. He declared that 
Smyrna should not undergo the fate of Salonica, which was sur- 
rendered to the Greeks when it ought to have been put to the flames. 
This declaration was made in the presence of the British and Russian 

This same attitude with regard to the town of Smyrna was also 
that of the Government, resulting in the systematic organisation of 
the boycott, the oppression of the Greek population, the expulsion 
and persecution of absolutely peaceful persons, the violation of the 
communal regulations of Smyrna, and of the privileges of the Greek 
element. The terrorism exercised in the country until the conclusion 
of the Armistice constitute the many devices conceived by the Vali 
for the annihilation of Hellenism, and the conversion to Mahomed- 
anisui of the Greek element in these territories. 

In order to facilitate the accomplishment of his scheme he devised 
a plan of getting rid of the spiritual Head of the Greek Community, 
Metropolitan Chrisostomos, in whom he knew the Greek element 
had such faith. 

At the instigation of the Vali of Smyrna, the central Govern- 
ment handed to the Patriarchate under date 15 July, 1914, a 
ministerial decree demanding that the Metropolitan of Smyrna should 
be recalled. His i)resence there, it was stated, was undesirable, as 
he both encouraged the Christians to emigrate, and facilitated the 
departure of the Greeks of the neighbourhood who came into Smyrna. 


The notice of the Government was duly called to the fictitiousness 
of this accusation, but with no effect. Neither did the explanations 
furnished by the Metropolitan himself to the Vali regarding the real 
state of things in any way alter the situation. 

On the 21st August, 1914, the Commissioner of Police, Hachim- 
Bey, acting under the orders of the Vali, went to the Bishopric, re- 
moved the Metropolitan by force and put him on board the Italian 
boat bound to Constantinople. 

The Greek Patriarchate addressed a note to the Government 
dated 8 October, 1915, in which the reinstatement of the Metro- 
politan was requested. It was not granted, however, the Govern- 
ment replying verbally and by decrees dated 7 January and 12 
November, 1915, that his return to Smyrna was strictly prohibited. 
Further, that he should abstain from taking part in the meetings of 
the Holy Synod, and to abstain from any intercourse with his district. 
This illegal request of the Government was not acceded to, and 
after a prolonged stay in the Capital, the Metropolitan of Smyrna 
returned to his Diocese after the Armistice with Turkey was 


Violent persecutions occurred in this Diocese (eighty-five 
Communities, 164,467 inhabitants) ; murders took place all over the 
country and the inhabitants were kept in a constant state of uneasi- 
ness. The policy followed by the C.U.P. and its agents completed 
in 1914, the destruction premeditated by them. 

On the 2nd March, 1913, a Turk wounded a young man named 
Athanasse Kabakli, who died after two days. On the morrow, a 
band of Turkish irregulars, armed to the teeth, entered the village 
of Basse Demirdjili and proceeded to the requisition of all the dwell- 
ings in general, and after beating the muhtar and several notables, 
retired undisturbed. The pope (priest) of the village lodged a 
complaint, and as a result, his punishment by the local authorities 
was requested by the Turks. In the course of the same month the 
miller, Panayis Tsoulakis, was murdered and his corpse thrown into 
the river Azamet-Tsay. 

Constantine Karamihalis was murdered in the chapel of St. 
George at Pergamos. On the 18th August, 1913, two Greeks, 
Dimitri Evang. Kaumissis and Demitri Ch. Nicolonis, natives of 
Nechori (Macedonia) were found slaughtered at Dere-Keuy and Kurla 
near Magnesia. 


On the 2nd of September, 1913, three Moslems took hold of a 
woman, Suzan Demitriou, in the village of Yukse-keuy, on her way 
to the fountain. She was pregnant. After first satisfying their 
instincts of bestiality on her, they opened her abdomen, extracted 
the child and pitched both in a ditch. On the 29th September, 1913, 
Nicolas Demitriou was met on the road by gendarmes coming from 
Papazli (Magnesia). They mi^rdered him. George Natsoulidis, a 
native of Baya of Zayori (F].pirus) was killed by three Moslems on the 
1st of October, 1913. Between the eighth and ninth of October, 
at night, four Cretan Moslems entered the coffee shop of Anast. Sp. 
Hassapi at Cassaba (Magnesia), and massacred the tenant. A post- 
mortem was held. The police came to the conclusion that only 
professional butchers could slaughter in such a manner, so that they 
arrested some Christian butchers, and imprisoned them. 

The foregoing list of crimes so carefully carried out clearly 
demonstrated the premeditated i^lan for the extermination 
of the Christian Greeks by Turkish officials and civilians. 
The local authorities did their best to throw dust into the eyes of 
the jjublic by pretending to punish the perpetrators of such crimes. 
On the other hand, they encouraged and incited their continuation by 
distributing arms to the Moslem population of Menemen, Adramiti, 
Bourhanie, Pergapos, Phocoea, Vourla, Sivrissar, and New Ephesus 
(Scala Nova), while severe measures were being taken against well- 
to-do and i)eaceable Christian citizens, whom they often imprisoned 
and exiled without any cause or reason. 

Notwithstanding all this, the Greek element remained firm and 
conscious of its own rights. The programme, however, of the Young 
Turks was bound to succeed. They had recourse to the boycott, 
which they exercised over all the diocese even more severely than in 
other places. The situation was daily rendered more critical. The 
Turks at first only threatened, but soon began to destroy the fortunes 
of the Christians by pulling up trees and vines, reaping crops, etc., 
assisted in their work by the Turkish immigrants. 

Under date of the 28 April, 1914, loachim, the Metropolitan of 
Ephesus, writes : — 

•'The boycott exerted against the Greeks, on the one hand, and 
the instalment of immigrants in the different communities on the other 
hand, render their position daily more difficult and critical. They 
already begin to apprehend, and even see the time, when giving way 
to the pressure exercised on them by the Moslems they will be 
obliged to abandon their homes." 

Wiiat he foresaw has unfortunately come to pass. 

Persecutions in 1914. 
(n) Adramyt Region. 

1. FRENELI. — Bands of Turks, surrounding the village at 
night, spread panic amongst the peasants. They plundered houses 
and shoi)S, and carried away cattle. The inhabitants of this place 
were expelled towards the end of May. 


2. ADRAMYT. — This community had for a long time been 
terrorised. In May, 1913, the notables of the village, all honest citi- 
zens, were suddenly and without reason whatever arrested and thrown, 
into prison. The boycott was also enforced here. The market was 
closed, and money was extorted from the Greek merchants, who were 
threatened with death. Towards the end of May, 1914, a whole 
battalion of Turkish irregulars went through the streets, attacking 
every one they came across, shouting and threatening, and ordering 
the Christians to evacuate the village in twenty-four hours and go to 
Greece, for if they did not do so their life would be in danger. These 
bands were reinforced by other armed Turks who set to work to plun- 
der the houses and shops, attacking and illtreating the inhabitants and 
urging them to go. The Community emigrated on tlie 24th May, 
1914. All the inhabitants of the aforesaid community sought refuge 
in Mitylene. 

For the same reasons the inhabitants of these communities were also 
compelled to expatriate. They went over to Mitylene with the ex- 
ception of a few families of Burlianie who were scattered about in the 
neighbourhood, and who returned to their homes in July of the same 

(f>) Cordelio Region. 

OF ST. GEOIUJE. These villages suffered very much. A band of 
armed Turks massacred Jean Doucas, a native of Narli-dere, and tried 
hard to oblige the inhabitants to leave. The gendarme, Abdourahman, 
accompanied hy Turkish immigrants, was repeatedly heard to say : 
*'Go away, you infidels, else we shall massacre you." 

Photios Triantas was murdered. The inhabitants of all four 
villages emigrated. 

10. MENEMEN. — Subjected to constant threats, the inhabitants 
were kept in a state of daily terror. The disorder and insecurity that 
prevailed in the district obliged them finally to resort to Smyrna *'en 
masse" from whence the greater part went to Mitylene. In the village 
of Kaklitch (Menemen region) Djelal Bey murdered the kehaya, Stalio 
Midildji, and stole his 800 sheep. In the village of Banidja, Garougalis 
Tzakmakliotis was found drowned in a well. 

11. OULOrDJAK. After the destruction of Sere-Keuy the 
Moslem aggressors plundered this village, the Moslem women taking 
part also in the plundering. George Kaskavalis was murdered. Many 
peasants met a horrible death in the neighbouring fields. The in- 
habitants of this village expatriated. 

12. SERE-KEL'Y. On the 30th May, the refugees of Gueren- 
keuy took shelter here. The inhabitants of Sere-keuy had decided 
to withstand all aggression on the part of the Turks. The next day 
thousands of armed Turks closely besieged the village, and a regular 
combat ensued. The Turks were headed by a dozen mounted gen- 


darmes, assisted in their turn by all the keepers of the region, armed 
with rifles. At last the Christians, having run short of munitions, 
were obliged to surrender conditionally. It was agreed that they 
should hand over their arms, leave their fortunes behind them, and 
evacuate the village with their families. Contrary to this understand- 
ing the Turks entered the village, set fire to it, and massacred the in- 
habitants. Indescribable scenes took place, as these fiends fell upon 
the women and children whom they literally butchered. The gen- 
darme Moustafa broke into the house of Paraskevas Skoufou, m which 
seventeen persons had taken refuge, and mercilessly massacred them. 
He tortured the daughter of Skoufou Olympia, wife of Mihalaki 
Leondaki, of whom he demanded money, and murdered her child four 
years old. The Turks spread over the different quarters of the village 
and plundered it. They baj^onetted the old men and desecrated the 
Church, took hold of a woman, Eleonora, stripped her of her clothes, 
and let her run about the streets naked. The following persons were 
murdered : Michail Leondakis, Likos Leonidakis, loannis Skoufos, 
Maria Skoufou, Evangelos Trikaliotis, loannis Skinas, Antonio^ 
Tselingas, Apostolos Simas, Paul Boyatsis, Stamatios Vourliotis, Atha- 
nassios Geurekiotis, Paraskevoula Kerekiotissa, Athanassios Dikeliotis, 
Nicolaos Papaliaras, Athanassios Kolomidis, the two brothers Koly- 
menou, Panayiotis Katoulas, Athanassios Limberis, loannis Geureki- 
otis, Panayiotis Geurekiotis, Kostis P. Kateoulas, Vas. Panayiotou, 
Nic. Kokos, Stefanos, Kokou, Christos Tsakmakliotis, Atha, Tsakma- 
kliotis, Christos Poupoulas, Panay, Georgalas, loannis Tridas, Atha- 
nassios Tsouras, Eleftherios Eleftheriou, Stelios Tokmis, together with 
a host of others. 

Robbed of everything, the inhabitants hastened towards Smyrna. 
They were, however, prevented by armed Turks of tlie village, and 
gendarmes, from proceeding any further than Tchili, and were obliged 
to return to Ouloundjak, where seven peasants were also murdered. 

The dragomans of the Constantinople Embassies of the Great 
Powers visited Sere-keuy and verified the catastrophe. In a report of 
the Bishopric of Ephesus, under date of 12th June, 1914, the following 
statement is given : — 

•'We reached Sere-keuy at 10 p.m. to-day. At first I conducted 
the Dragomans to a well, in which the corpse of an old man of seventy 
years, Christoforos Karaghiozi, was found. I then visited along with 
them the burnt houses. In one of them belonging to Batista Nicolaou 
we found several carbonised corpses of persons unknown to us. The 
houses burnt down numbered thirty-four. We next visited six slioi)s 
and in one of them alone, that of Mr. Leonaki, goods worth more 
than Ltqs. 600 were stored. Nothing now remained. 'J'lie dragomans 
carefully examined the Clmrches ; we found everytliing in ruins, not- 
withstanding the attempt made by tlie Turks to repair tlie damage 
done, and clear up the place. The Eikons were cut to pieces. Tlie 
Altar was overthrown and the earth under it dug up in tlie hope 
apparently of coming across treasure. The Church and scliool grounds 
were also dug up, possibly for the same purjwse. Fire has comi)letely 


destroyed the girl's school ; in general, the destroyed and deserted 
village offers a pitiful sight. 

All available means had been made use of in an attemjit to hide 
the ravage done. Government officials were sent to close the doors 
and windows of tiie houses, and clear the streets of the ruins and 
corpses, in spite of which the signs of the crimes perpetrated were 
easily discerned by the dragomans. I expressly opened the doors of 
some houses for them, and they witnessed the horrible spectacle of the 
corpses mingled with the rubbish from the ruins. 

On going through Menemen, the Caimacham showed the drago- 
mans certain postcards, representing the Turkish flag being trampled 
under foot by Greek soldiers, which he himself had procured, in order 
to justify, as he thought, the savagery of the Turks. 

13. NEW PHOCOEA. This village also underwent a similar 
attack, during which the following were murdered : Pope Tsakmakli 
and his wife ; Lambrinos Miskitis, Dem. Kokinos, Pantazis Merkakis, 
Stylianos Honias, Panayiotis Serayos, Garoufalia Pipila, Athanasse 
Horekis, loannis Poupos, Dem. Pasvantis, Mihail Kahdizos, Georgios 
Saris, Georgios Tsakir Kehayas, etc., many also were wounded. The 
inhabitants left for Mitylene towards the end of May. 

17. TCHAKMAKU. In these villages it was not the Turkish immi- 
grants, but the Turks of the neighbourhood who entered and i)lunder- 
ed and destroyed them, and eventually expelled the inhabitants. 
Athanasse Seredais of the village of Ali-Agha was massacred. 

STIANOHORI. The sub-governor of Pergamos intalled Turkish im- 
migrants in the Christian houses, who daily terrorised the inhabitants. 
This also happened to the other villages. At Klisse-keuy the family 
of Christo Tsaghari, composed of six members, was assassinated. 
Mallis and Prokopios Theodosiou, notable natives of Scala Klisse-keuy, 
were also assassinated. The wife of the latter was carried away to the 
mountains by the marauders. On the 28th of May, numerous Turks 
assailed the village of Soghandjilar, and wounded a woman and her 
child of a year old, also Michel Bali. They then went to the village 
of Kalarya, and commited the same crimes there. The Turkish immi- 
grants established at Christianohori joined the Moslems of the sur- 
rounding country, and expelled the Christian inhabitants of the village, 
who were compelled to take refuge at Kiniki, in a miserable condition. 
Driven away from there by the Mudir, they went to Pergamus, but 
the gendarmes prevented them from entering the village, so that they 
passed the night in the open air. The day after they sought refuge 
in Dikeli. 

24. KINIKI. This village with the surrounding district was 
entirely ruined. The armj^ of vandals over-ran it, and destroyed every- 

28. ISMAILAR, 29. ADJANEZ. This district was also evacu- 
ated owing to severe plundering. 

81 G 

(c)oVourla Region. 

ISLAND (latro-Nissi). These villages were also evacuated under the 
same conditions. The whole of the region including the town of 
Vourla suffered innnensely, not only from the malefactors who openly 
terrorised the population, but also from the Moslems of the country, 
whom the Government armed. The shepherd, Lambros Stoupi, was 
murdered near Bournoussous, and so were also Dem. Kalpaxiotis and 
Argiris Demitriou, near Vourla, Manolis Kaelos Sariyannis in the 
village of Soghout, Georgios Fotinakis at Kiman-reiz, and Panayiotis 

The inhabitants of Vourla, threatened by expulsion, were saved 
by Talaat, who ordered *'Sindillk doursoun" (they may remain for 
the present). Eleftherios Akritas. of Gul-Baktche, a peasant, Manolis, 
of Ipsili, and the shepherd Kyriakos Axiotou, a newly born babe, an 
old man, Tsemberlis, Costas Orphanos, and Basil Karadais of Kilizman, 
were also killed. 

[d) Magnesia Region. 

33. SOMA. The economic crisis arising from the boycott and 
the plundering were the cause of the emigration of the Christians. At 
Magnesia proper, the situation was no better. Close to the village 
of Moutevelli, Athanasse Perivolaris was found assassinated in the 
fields. At Cassaba, a young Turk, fifteen years old, attacked and 
nearly killed a young Greek girl. Kyriakos Abalis, Costas Cavoukas, 
and George Haralambakis were murdered at Yaka-keuy. 

Certain agglomerations of villages not actually forming commu- 
nities, such as Sakrani, Kirklar, Daglidena, Tsourouki, Fren-keuy, 
Kadi-keuy, Tchirikdji, Kizil-Kitzili, Araplar, Karaklar, Tahtadji-keuy, 
Gum-Beili, Gioz-beili, and Saridjalar, expatriated in consequence of 
the threats and oppression. 

The situation continued to be critical, for the Christians who still 
remained in these parts did not venture out into their fields, owing to 
the repeated murders committed in the country. It is a fact that this 
emigration had subsided in June, but it had only stoi)ped because it 
was considered that the object of the Young Turks had been attained. 
They had distributed to the Moslsm Mouhtars of the villages their 
famous instructions to the effect : "That the Christians should be 
driven out by main force and everything belonging to them should 
be i)lundered ; that they should be outraged, and finally all the in- 
fidels should be annihilated." And this was done. 

Mehmet Salih, Mahmout Handi and Moustafa Mouzaffer, fur- 
nished with letters of recommendation from the Vali of Smyrna, 
and passes free of charge on the railway lines, visited the different 
villages and towns of the province in order to preach violence against 
the Christians. 

Far from being eliminated, the danger of the renewal of emi- 
gration seemed to increase daily, as the remaining Greek 


population was subjected to all kinds of violent persecution. The 
Metropolitan of Ephesus one day asked the Vali of Smyrna, Rahnii 
Bey, if he also would be sent away, and he received the following 
answer. *'Yes, you will also have to go because you will not have 
any flock to preach to." 

Deportations during the European War. 

These deportations were justified on tlie grounds of military 
necessity, and commenced again in January. The communities of 
High-and-Low Dermidjili, Gul-Baktche, Yoghdjilar and the farm of 
St. George, were evacuated in June, 1915, and their inhabitants 
sought refuge in the Diocese of Philadelphia. The population of New 
•Ephesus was also expelled to the same region. 



In tliis Diocese also (numbering eighteen communities and 
31,036 inhabitants), the same terrorism, as elsewhere, prevailed. The 
tobacco plantations were destroyed, inoffensive peasants were ill-used, 
villages blockaded and whole flocks of sheep stolen. The shepherd, 
Demetri, was massacred in the village of Kimitouria. The inhabitants 
of the communities of Tzangli, Ak-vouki, and Kimitouria were ex- 
pelled to the very last man. 

The majority of the inhabitants of Arvanitohori, under pretext 
that they were originally from the neighbouring island of Samos, were 
expelled. The women and old men that remained behind were ill- 
treated to such an extent that they were obliged to abandon their 
goods and leave also. 

Imprisonments, oppressions, requisitions, etc., were the reasons 
for which the inhabitants of the following communities partially or 
totally dispersed, viz : Sokia, Neohori, Yeronta, Ak-keuy, Domatia, 
Kelemvessi, Bayarassi, Develi-keuy, and Beleritch. The small agglo- 
meration of the Balkadi region, Kayas, Trianta, Develi-keuy, and 
Beleritch completely disappeared, owing to the mobilisation of their 
male population. 

Alexandros, Metropolitan of Sokia, was unjustly accused of having 
acted contrary to the interest of the State, and his dismissal was de- 


manded by decrees dated 8th June and 1st September, 1917. And 
although he was able to justify himself, he still received the order to 
leave Sokia and go to Smyrna. In September lie was expelled by 
force from Sokia and sent to tlie Turkish village of Tsivril. In 
December he was allowed to make his choice of a residence in the 
vilayet of Broussa until the conclusion of the Armistice, when he 
/eturned to his Diocese. 


A ruthless persecution was started all over this Diocese (compris- 
ing thirty-one Communities and 60,496 inhabitants) which began at 
an early date. Turkish immigrants from the territories occupied by 
Serbia established themselves in the various Greek communities, and 
took away the inhabitants' houses and property by force ; they also 
deprived them of their savings, the produce of many years' hard 
labour, and terrorised the Greek population in general. 

This hostile attitude of the immigrants and Turks was supported 
by the Government officials and is proved by a document bearing the 
signature of Karabina Zade All (a rich proprietor of the hotels and 
the hot baths of Chesme), in his official capacity as organiser of the 
Bands of the peninsula of Erythrea, and addressed to the Chief of 
the Band, and the officers of the Gendarmerie. Moreover, the com- 
plicity of the Government officials in the destruction of this Diocese 
is revealed, beyond doubt, in a report of the Metropolitan of Chesme, 
under date of the 20th May, 1914, as follows : — 

*'5 A few days ago the work of accommodating 1,300 Moslem 

immigrants in the Churches and 150 Christian houses had finished. 
The inhabitants now expected to be able to attend to their work of 
agriculture as before, earn a living and pay the Government taxes. 
But such was not the case, for the Government officials called the 
nmhtars up and ordered them to prepare another hundred houses, as 
the above 150 were not sufficient to accommodate the Turkish immi- 
grants. The muhtars and notables remarked that no empty houses 
were available, as already the largest of the houses had been requisi- 
tioned for that purpose. The authorities, however, i)ersisted, and pro- 
ceeded, assisted by armed gendarmes and tobacco-keepers, to enter the 
houses and shops occu^iied by the Christians, robbing them of every- 
thing they i)ossessed, and ordering the tenants out under penalty of 
death, adding that there was no room any more for Christians by the 
side of the Moslems, and that therefore they should go to Saloiiica. 


Accordingly, all the houses and shops of Chesme fell into the hands 
of the Turks, and the inhabitants were turned out into the streets in 
a shameful manner by tlie Government, with nothing else but the 
clothes they wore. Some few managed to take some coverings with 

The inhabitants panic-stricken at the reports of massacre, were 
obliged to leave ; some took refuge in the neighourhood with their 
families, others proceeded to the sea-shore village of Cato-Panayia to 
take the first ships available and expatriate. 

Plundering by the authorities and immigrants lasted the whole 
night long. Those houses and shops that had been closed by their 
owners were broken into by means of hatchets, and everything they 
contained taken away. Money, lewelrj', furniture, manufactured 
goods, all kinds of chattels and utensils fell into the hands of the 

The whole property of a flourishing village, numbering 1000 
Christian families, passed into their hands, and the loss is estimated 
at a considerable sum. 

All this took place with the consent and assistance even of the 
authorities. During three whole days and nights, armed Turks from 
Chesme and Ovadjik transported their booty from Cato-Panayia and 
this place to Ovadjik, at half an hour's distance towards the interior. 
The Caimacham pretended not to know either what had taken place, 
or declared himself incapable of maintaining order, even going so far 
as to own it to me when I remonstrated with him. 

"Moslem fanaticism, which tlie Turkish Press has recently done its 
best to excite, combined with the rapacious instinct of certain mis- 
creants, are the main causes, I believe, that have encouraged the Turks 
of the neighbourhood to oppress the Christians. 

"These malevolent instigations naturally gain ground as long as 
the authorities tolerate with impunity such acts, for the i)erj)etrators 
knowing that no i)unishment awaits them, and profiting by the ab- 
normal present conditions, will continue unconcerned their work of 
destruction. In conclusion, I have to remark that the Christian com- 
munities of Chesme and its surroundings are i)rei)ared to expatriate 
owing to the menacing attitude of the Moslem immigrants, and it is 
with great difficulty that I, together with some notables, have been 
able to prevent them so far from doing so. It may be considered 
certain, however, that a fresh immigration, even in small numbers, will 
take place, and a repetition of tlie outrages already perpetrated will 
have the effect of obliging the whole Diocese to expatriate although 
nothing short of ruin awaits them." 

What was foreseen by the foregoing communication, came to pass, 
and it is under the most tragic conditions that the following villages 
were evacuated, in a very short space of time : 





In order to hasten the departure of the Christians and render it 
inevitable, the criminals started committing all kinds of acts of terror- 
ism so as to scare the inhabitants. Two workmen, natives of Ahirli, 
were strangled in the mines of Monasteri. Soldiers and Turkish immi- 
grants at Saipi wounded some of the Christian inhabitants and mur- 
dered Andrea Monastirli, Haralambos Roumeliotis, the wife of Petro 
Hadji Kyriakou, Yani Tchobani, Stamati and some others. Other 
fiends murdered Haralambos Panayirtou Ismirli, a citizen of Yeni- 
Liman ; the keeper Arif beat two old women of Micro Moldovani, 
the paralytic wife of pope Stamati, and Chryssafi Diasouri, 
because they refused to be islimized. He then put them in a boat and 
paid out of his own pocket that they might be deported to the opposite 
island, Englezonissi, so that no Christian foot should any longer soil the 
peninsular of Erithrea. 

Lately the village, on the island of Englezonissi, has been evacu- 
ated also. On the 27th June, 1914, regular troops landed at six 
different points of the island, occupied it, and blockaded the houses in 
search of arms. They killed fifteen Christians. The other inhabitants 
took refuge in Mr. Joreau's house, a French citizen. The two 
daughters of Aspromati (fourteen and seventeen years old) were 
successively violated by twenty -five soldiers. 

Following these incidents, the inhabitants of the Island, together 
with the Christians from the surrounding country who had taken 
refuge there, embarked for Greece, and especially to the isle of Chios 
where the inhabitants of this district also went. 


The first serious manifestations of the hostile feelings of the Turks 
against the Christians of this Diocese (twenty-nine Connnunitics and 
21,138 inhabitants) began by the commercial boycott, which the 
Government officials started suddenly, assisted by gendarmes, night- 
watchmen, and highway robbers whom tliey had expressly let out of 
prison, liahiiii Bey, Governor of Smyrna, personally inspected the 
application of this conmiercial boycott throughout the chief seats of 
the Diocese, and encouraged the fanaticism of the Moslems in tiieir 
persecution of the Christians. 


This boycott was exercised with peculiar severity at Salikli, Ouchak. 
Koula, Simar, Demizli, Guiordes, Sardis and Philadelphia. Simulta- 
neously with the boycott, they proceeded with the destruction of pro 
perty through setting fire to houses, mills, factories, etc., and destroy- 
ing them. Shepherds, millers, petty merchants and other villagers 
were murdered. 

One hundred and fifty-four persons were murdered : twenty-five 
at Philadelphia, thirty-two at Koula, twenty-eight at Salihli, and 
neighourhood, twelve at Ouchak, twenty-two at Yordis and surrounding 
places ; thirty-five at Denizli, Honnes and Diner. Among them 
was the director of the baths, Kodjamanides. One hundred and two 
fires broke out. The fanatical C.l .P.'s burnt the newly constructed 
Church and the school of Sardis. 

Owing to these crimes the inhabitants of the less populated 
villages were obliged to resort to the more populated centres, while 
others, fearing a greater calamity, abandoned their country and busi- 
ness altogether, and went away to strange countries. 

This partial expatriation took place i)articularly in the connnu- 
nities of Koula, Giolde, Demirdji, Pitsirli, (juiordes, Kayadjik, Borlou, 
Mentochori, Outchak, Otourak, Sardis, Eniguiol, Denizli, Sara-keuy, 
Elbanlar, Appa, Honne, Tsivril, Diner, Tatar, Guediz, Simar and 

When the Great War broke out, the sufferings of the Greek ele- 
ment of this Diocese reached their highest pitch. Requisitions, sub- 
scriptions by force, military exoneration taxes and general mobilization 
completely paralysed all activity of this region. The Moslem landed 
proprietors took advantage of the mobilization of the Christians and 
took many of them into their service, but the treatment to which they 
subjected them was such as to cause the death of the majority. 


The first manifestation of the persecution of the Greek element 
of this Diocese (fifty communities and 54,249 inhabitants) was the 
opening of the boycott. It started at Aktche, and soon spread all 
over the Diocese, largely due to the energy displayed by the Govern- 
ment officials. Pamphlets were distributed by the Mudir of Pyrghi 
(near Odemitch) to the Turjiisli Muhtars, imi)loring the Moslems in 
the name of the Prophet to start, at the first signal given, plundering 
and massacring the Christians. 

The sub-governor of Odemitch issued an order by the town crier 
to the effect that henceforth tailors and merchants were strictly pro- 


hibited to manufacture for, or sell clothes to the Moslems. Whoso- 
ever transgressed this order would be fined Ltq. 5; and in case of a 
repetition of the act, would be beaten, imprisoned, and finally exiled. 

Side by side with the boycott were the assassinations committed 
unceasingly. In every Turkish village a certain number of miscreants 
were appointed, wliose work was to annihilate the Christians by 
attacking and plundering them throughout the Communities. 

The village of Aktche suffered from the aggression of one of these 
bands. On the 10th of September, 1915, Turks penetrated into this 
locality, blockaded its exits, and plundered the shops of the notables 
George Sfedjopoulo, Hadji Petro Broussali, George Christou Philippa 
Ktisti and Haralambo Savopoulo, whom they massacred on his own 
premises, after which they conducted the remaining four to the market 
of the village and shot them down. 

These incessant atrocities, coupled with the taxation and extortion 
of money and goods, forced the population, especiall}^ the higher class, 
to abandon their fortunes in the hands of the marauding bands and 
seek refuge in Aidina and Smyrna, well pleased to save their lives 
and honour. 

On the 6th June, 1914, Somaragda, Metropolitan of Helioupolis, 
wrote : 

"My Diocese continues to present a spectacle of desolation and 
distress. Besides the total economic ruin, occasioned by the boycott 
to the Christians through the destruction of their tobacco plantations, 
their fig and olive trees and their gardens, in fact of every means of 
subsistence, the rumours of the ravages committed in other communi- 
ties have brought about such a feeling of despair amongst the Greek 
element that half the population of the Aidina and Thyra regions have 
these last few days, emigrated to Smyrna in order to save their lives. 
It is impossible for me to describe the panic with which the Christians 
are stricken. 

Although up to this moment not one of the communities has been 
completely evacuated, still this region has not been altogether un- 
affected by the European War. Tiie Karia section was more especi- 
ally violently persecuted owing to its position on the littoral (sea-coast). 

The maioritv of the inhabitants of : 1. KEFALOUKAS, 

12. MADALIA, embarked on sailing vessels and took refuge in the 
adjacent islands. Later on, the notables of the aforesaid connnunities 
were arrested under various pretexts and thrown into prison. Finally 
in July, 1918, feigning to enforce the law upon defaulters, the ordex* 
was given that the remaining Greek inhabitants of these communities 
as well as those of : 13. KOKINOHOHI, 14. MASSAT, 15. YENI- 
PAZAR, and 16. KAUADJA-SOL, should be expelled and deported. 
Some few were sent to Mougla, and tlie others exiled to some Turkish 
villages. Tlie evacuated connnunities were completely destroyed, many 
of whose inhabitants died of fatigue, luinger, privations, ilhiess, etc. 

It wouhl fill a whole volume if a detailed account of the massacres 


of the peaceful Christians of this Diocese were to be given, without 
of course, taking into account the innumerable deaths that took place 
among the Christian soldiers of the "Labour Corps" through want of 
proper nourishment, and ill-treatment on the part of their officers. 

Moslem brigands carried away Christian notables to the mountains 
and only let them free after having made them pay heavy ransoms. 
This danger prevented the Christians from attending to their work 
in the fields. 

A few days ago, the following letter dated 14th June, 1914, was 
addressed to the Metropolitan of Helioupolis from Tatsis : 

*'The local gendarmerie collected all the guns belonging to tFie 
Christians, and on the 9th of the month, at 4 p.m., the Turkish 
Muhtars of the village of Kar-keuy 'tatsi district' and other armed 
Turks surrounded the residence of one of the best Greek families here, 
broke into it, found the head of the family, beat him mercilessly, and 
took away his daughter sixteen years of age. Three of the gendarmes 
guarded the entrance of the house until the three others with their 
victim were out of sight. As tiie girl offered some resistance they 
tied her hands behind her back, and dragged her along to a place 
about ten minutes walk from the village. The chief of the brigands, 
a certain Zabit Bey, fifty years of age, fell on the poor girl, and was 
the first to brutally violate her. The others then followed suit. This 
lasted until morning, when tliey carried the girl in a fainting and half- 
naked condition close to her home, and ran away." 

Letter of the Mutasserif of Aidin, Husni Bey, to the officer com- 
manding the prisons of Smyrna : 

•'In conformity with the instructions of the honorable Committee, 
I despatched in handcuffs the first batcli of four notables of Karabounar. 
They are dangerous pro-Hellenes, whom you will deal witli as is 
necessary. In three days you will receive some more from Dermendjik, 
Moursal, Nazli and Aktche. 

"The measure is efficacious, for once we exterminate the notablps 
only the rural population will be left and I have formed two or three 
bands to deal with each of the foregoing villages. I have appointed 
my brother, Mousta Bey, chief of these bands, who undertakes to 
serve the Committee gratuitously. With regard to the women and 
children, we will Islamise them, and I hope with the help of God, to 
purge the whole of the countryside of this district. 

•'We shall decide what we have to do about Aidin when next we 
meet. I approve of the method of incendiarism. I shall be in Smyrna 
shortly and we will come to an understanding verbally." 

No comments are necessary. It suffices that once more Govern- 
ment officials have been revealed as being the principal organisers of 
the massacres and persecutions of the Christians. 



of the 

The Metropolitans depending on the Greek Patriarchate, mindful 
of tlieir spiritual duty to>vards their co-nationalists, worked untiringly 
for the preservation of the flock under them from persecution and the 
attempts of the Young Turk Government to annihilate them altogether. 

The Metropolitans of the Smyrna Diocese very often had to under- 
take steps together for the defence of their flocks. 

These Metropolitans addressed on the 12th of June, 1914, a 
collective note intended to throw sufficient light on this burning 
question to the First Dragomans of the Embassies of the Great Powers, 
who were expressly sent to the spot. 

The following is the note, translated from the original text in 
Greek : 

*'To the Honorable International Commission of Enquiry. 

"The undersigned Metropolitans of Ephesus, Smyrna, Phila- 
delphia, Helioupolis and Chesme, in conformity with the desire ex- 
pressed by the representatives of the Embassies of the Great Powers 
at Constantinople, have the honour to submit our opinion of the actual 
situation prevailing in our respective districts, a situation which actuated 
their Mission to our Diocese. 

*'The acts of persecution and oppression committed against the 
Christian element date already from old, and are by no means isolated 
cases. It seems as if this phase is the one before the last (perhaps the 
last in the form of a general massacre) and is still in store for us. 

"The hatred and fanaticism of the Moslems similar to that of the 
Armenians is brought to a pitch of violence by the exhortations of the 
Turkish press, which constantly preach the extermination of the Chri- 
stians. This phase includes the commercial boycott, daily increasing 
in violence, and isolated cases of massacre capable of inspiring panic. 

"The vast plan of the destruction of the Christians was preceded 
on the one hand by the dismissal of all the Greek functionaries from 
the Government and administrative employ, and the distribution of 
arms to the Moslem peasants, in particular those of the sea-shore, and 
on the other hand, by the disarming of the Christians from whom they 
took away even the hunting guns, the oppression of the notables of 
the vilayets of Broussa and vVidin, the expulsion of other notables, 
Greek subjects from Smyrna, the appointment to confidential j)osts of 
fanatical officials in wliom the (iovernment could have every confidence 
for the execution of the organised i)lan. To ensure the realisation of 


this plan, the secret organisations worked efficiently, under the control, 
direction, and protection of the Government officials. 

*'The means of action employed, and the execution of these atro- 
cities, are one and the same. After witnessing one of the terrible 
scenes committed in these places, in which the Christian element pre- 
dominated, one is in a position to form a correct idea of what has 
happened in the other towns and villages of Anatolia. 

"As forming an exception to this rule, mention may be made of 
the towns and villages, whose inhabitants, in protecting their homes 
and religion, offered some resistance to the invading element, and such 
are the following : Serekeuy, Guerenkeuy, Oloudjak, and the whole 
country of Old and New Phocoea, which were completely burnt and 

"The system adopted by the Moslems is the following one : The 
Caimacham and the chief of the Gendarmerie call up the town or the 
village elders, and advise them to leave at once, as their presence will 
be tolerated no longer. 

•'The next stej) is to expedite bands of armed Bachibouzouks (ir- 
regulars) and Zeibeks (highlanders) against the towns and villages, who, 
attracted by their fertility, seize them from the Christians, because 
they have previously been made to believe that all these once belonged 
to them (the Turks), and have been taken by the Christians, who must 
no more be tolerated in a Moslem State. It can thus easily be under- 
stood how this plan, having as an object the annihilation of the Chris- 
tians, was put into execution. Woe betide the Christians who did 
not at once comply with the request of the gendarme or the government 
official. Immediately, firing is heard round and about the village, 
cattle are stolen, i)easants are carried away, murders are committed, 
and country houses are set fire to. Should the Greek peasants, terror- 
ised by these events, feel disposed to emigrate, they were plundered, 
stripped of all they possess and expelled. Should they in any way 
try to defend their homes, armed bands from the mountains surround 
the town or village indicated, and if the inhabitants answer the firing 
of these bands, generally headed by officers of the gendarmerie or on 
the retired list, the village fares badl}'. 

•'If, as a matter of fact, functionaries have visited the ravaged 
regions, such as the towns of Adramyt, the Cazas of Pergamus, 
Phocoea Chesme, and Carabournou, and telegraphed that perfect order 
has been established, it is to be accounted for simply because the 
plundering and expelling of the Christians has been carried out. 

"With regard to the escaped regions of Thyra, Baindir, etc., they 
visited, the information received is heart-rending. The situation, after 
their visit, became suddenly worse. Not to mention other facts, we 
hereafter reproduce the official telegram of the community of Thyra, 
received this day. 'After arrival Governor and Minister boycott more 
rigorous ; market closed, tobacco plantations and fields abandoned, 
agriculturists fear proceed to their w^ork, population wishes to emi- 
grate, but government prevents ; act in the soonest way possible for 
us to be allowed to come to Smyrna, so as to avoid intolerable exist- 
ence.' • 


"We consider the only effective remedy to be, and the one capable 
of securing a somewhat bearable life to the Christians in Turkey, is 
the adoption and strict application of the following wishes, as enume- 
rated by the Patriarchate. 

(1) The return of the deported Greeks to their homes. 

(2) The restitution of their goods and fortunes. 

(3) Indemnification. 

(4) The cessation of the boycott, and freedom of prisoners. 

(5) Guarantees. 

(6) Tlie institution of a mixed commission to supervise the re- 
establishment of the refugees in their homes. 

''The undersigned avail themselves of this opi)ortunity to assure 
you. Gentlemen, of their high consideration, and to invoke on you and 
your humanitarian work the blessing of heaven." 

SMYRNA 12/25 JUNE, 1914. 

N.B. Apart from the collective note, each one of the Metropolitans 
handed over a brief one, with reference to his respective Diocese. 


Already during the Balkan War this Diocese (comi^osed of fifteen 
communities and 32,784 inhabitants) was terrorised by a band of 
Moslem Cretans, who gave themselves up to all sorts of i)ersecution 
and oppressions of every description including murders and massacres. 
Two brothers, Panayiotis and Savas, natives of Alaya, who were work- 
ing in the farm of Hadji loannou Pai)azoglou, close to Adalia, were, 
among others, their victims (9th January, 1913). The Moslem Cretans 
also took an active part in the boycott against tiie Greek element. 

The economic warfare directed against Adalia, Bourdour, Sparta 
and Phiniki, began with the arrival at Adalia of a general insi)ector of 
the C.U.P. The supervision of the movement was entrusted to the 
Cretans, who went all over the country, whip in hand, forcing the 
Moslems, under oath, and under the very eyes of the authorities, to 
give up every intercourse with the Christians, and not to i)ay their 
debts to them. 

This situation liad of course its consequences. Rumours were 
cleverly spread to tiie effect that tlie persecutions of the same nature 
as those of Thrace and Asia-Minor were imminent, witli the result 
tliat trade came to a complete standstill, whilst finance was in a very 
bad condition. Further the inliabitants were ordered by the Moslem 

92 ' 

Muhtars to quit within twenty-four hours, so that the Christians were 
obliged to resort to Adaha and Bourdour abandoning all they owned 
to the discretion of the Turks. 

In spite of the general inspector issuing orders, prohibiting crime 
against the Christians towards the end of June, 1914, the merchant 
Athanassoglou, a native of Sparta, was murdered in the village of 
Youva. A bag stained with blood, containing his books, was found 
in a well. Athanasse Philipidis, established fifteen years in the village 
of Kemer, was murdered by Turkish peasants. Jeremiah Danopoulos, 
established at Horzoum of Gueul-Hissar, was beaten mercilessly and 
put to death with an axe. The sexual organs of Kyriakos Hadji 
Aslanoglou, and Cosmas Damaroglou were cut off. They both died. 
George Demirayakoglou, of Kapakli, was assassinated. The families 
of George and Constantine Sazakoglou were murdered under most 
tragic circumstances. 

Regarding the Community of Boudour, a general massacre was to 
nave taken place on the 21st September, 1914 ; but an earthquake so 
disastrous to the conununity seems to have had the result of determining 
the Turks to put off their scheme to some more favourable moment. 
The Community, however, underwent many trials owing to requisitions, 
all kinds of extortions, the exile of 200 of its notables into the interior, 
and the barbarous conduct in general of the Turkish inmiigrants 
towards the Christians. 

Besides the Greeks of the aforementioned localities, who took 
refuge in Aidir and Boudour, many inhabitants of Myron were obliged 
owing to the situation to emigrate with their families to Castelorizo in 
June, 1914. Antii)helles was evacuated the same month, and the 
inhabitants of Phiniki were dispersed. The Christian element in 
general of this corner of Asia Minor, under the influence of the events 
in the District of Smyrna in 1914, now began to expatriate. 

The European war offered the Young Turks an occasion to finish 
up their work of destruction. The few. remaining inhabitants of the 
village of Phinica, with a few excei)tions, expatriated. Those of Macri 
and Bevisa, and the small agglomerations of Kiuldjek and Peldjigez 
were expelled at different intervals (from September, 1916, to August, 
1918) to the interior, without any mercy to the infirm, women and 
children, or even the sick. 

N.B. The inhabitants of the islet of Tarsana, 376 in number, 
expatriated owing to the attack of the Turkish troops, and left their 
fortunes worth £162,000 behind them. 



Although this Diocese (comprising seven communities, with a 
population of 10,598 inhabitants) did not suffer from expulsions or de- 
portations, it was ever since 1914 subjected to a severe boycott, which 
brought about the great economic crisis, notably at Kutaya and Eski- 
Shehir. This boycott grew in intensity and violence on the arrival 
at Kutahia of the Minister of War, Enver Pasha (20 June, 1914). It 
was accompanied this time by threats, printed in Greek and thrown 
into the houses and shops, to the effect that the infidels would be 
completely exterminated. 

The hatred manifested towards the Christians was of the highest. 
Even the Minister of the Interior, Talaat himself, showed his spiteful 
feelings on being told at the Railway Station of Haimana-Angora that 
Christian names were still to be heard of in that locality. He remarked 
that "only the names of Ali and Mehmet should be heard in future." 

Mobilization greatly contributed to accentuate the economic sad 
condition of the Diocese. The town of Angora suffered especially 
from the terrible fire that broke out in August, 1916, during which, 
owing to the wanton negligence of the Vali, Dr. Rechid Bey, the 
Greek quarters, comprising the most beautiful section of the town, was 
reduced to cinders. 


At an early date, daily increasing terrorism had become manifest 
in this Diocese (forty-two communities and 50,800 inhabitants) whose 
Government officials persecuted in divers manners tlie Christians, and 
excited the Moslem element against them. i 

The attorney -general of Ak-Shehir, Ismail Hakki, openly accused 
the Greeks of having Philhellenic sentiments, and called upon the 
Moslems to expel the Christians from their liomes. A truly fanatic 
official, the Hussein Bey, Vali of Konia, and his famous successor, 
Azmi Bey, officially proclaimed that the only means of saving Turkey 
from the danger that menaced her was to exterminate the non-Moi'em 


element. The situation of this diocese became still more critical owing 
to the disarmament of the Christians, and the arming of the Moslem 

Procope, Metropolitan of Konia, wrote under tlie date of the 2nd 
February, 1915 : 

"It is no exaggeration to say that the sufferings of tlie Christians 
here surpass those of the Hebrews in Egypt, whom those in power 
had condemned to annihilation. The Greeks of the Diocese have been 
absolutely passed over in business ; their goods have been system- 
atically requisitioned ; no end of difficulties created for them in the 
transport of other goods to replace tliem, imported articles as well as 
local products do not escape being requisitioned ; taxes without end, 
and numerous subscriptions are imposed on the Christians. Hundreds 
of these unfortunate creatures are forced to hard labour in the open 
air, exposed in the winter season to privations and sufferings, and 
lacking the strictest necessaries for the maintenance of their families. 

**As if this was not sufficient oppression for the Christians, the 
Authorities have inaugurated a new system of persecution started a 
few days ago. 

"A number of persons, bearing tlie vilest cliaracter, bring false 
accusations against peaceful and hard-working Christians, wlio are 
arrested and brouglit up before the Court Martial of Konia. There, 
without any previous examination, they are either condemned to im- 
prisonment, fined, or given supplementary hard labour. This pro- 
cedure resulted in the prisons of Konia, Sylle, Karaman, etc., being 
full of Christians. Until lately the province of Nigde has been spared, 
thanks to the good intentions of its Governor. I nfortunately the 
system of denunciation was introduced into this region also, a number 
of Christians became the victims of calumny at Nigde, Poro, Kuldjouk, 
Hassa-keuy and other places, and it is reported that still greater 
calamities will befall the Greeks in the near future, for the Vali of 
Konia, whose hatred against the Christians knows no bounds, accuses 
the latter openly of malevolence and treachery, and declares that it 
becomes imperative for the security of the State that this element be 
expelled from this territory, abandoning tlie fortunes they acquired 
by taking advantage, as the Vali pretended, of the simplicity of the 
Moslem element. 

"This is now the situation created for the Christians, which does 
away with the privileges they enjoyed hitherto, and making the 
position of our educational institutions intolerable. Our priests are 
dragged by force and without any reason before the authorities, with 
the object of intimidating the community. The inspectors of public 
instruction, transmit direct to the professor, and without the know- 
legde of the Bishopric, orders as to the programme and mode of 
teaching to be followed as well as the things to be taught. My verbal 
and written protestations are taken no notices of, or mere promise? 
are given, and the professors whose diplomas have not been confirmed 

by the Ministry or some other institutions are threatened by dismissal. 
Latterly, NIDGE has served as a centre through which 
drilled troops coming from Constantinople are sent to Erzeroum, and 
recruits coming from Cesaria are sent to Constantinople, lender pre- 
text, therefore, of accommodating the soldiers, the military authorities 
have now requisitioned the schools of Nidge which have cost so much 
in money and trouble. 


This Diocese consists of fifty-two communities and has a population 
of 34,000 inhabitants, and has suffered greatly economically owing to 
the mobilization and the boycott. The authorities contributed by 
persecutions towards the oppression of the Christians, imposing arbi- 
trary taxes and forced subscriptions for the needs of the State and the 
Army, thus rendering the situation of its Christian inhabitants an ex- 
tremely precarious one. 

Some amelioration in the situation might have been achieved if 
the inhabitants were able to go freely from place to place and carry 
on their business. This, however, was impossible on account of the 
many Turkish brigands, who had deserted from the ranks and robbed 
every Christian who happened to cross their path. Every financial 
movement having stopped, therefore, hunger and misery ravaged freely 
this Diocese. 

N.B. — Tarsos and Adana (dependent on the Patriarchate of An- 
tioch) also suffered from deportations. At the beginning of the Euro- 
pean war the Christian population of Mersina was deported to Adana 
and Tarsus for military reasons, as if the military rea.«ons did not 
apply equally to all the population of a town in general. At the same 
time the inhabitants of the neighbouring agglomerations were also 
deported. About seventy notables of Tarsus were exiled to the district 
of Aleppo in April, 1918. 



The Persecutions and Martyrdom of the 
Greek Populations of Pontus. 


Ever since tlie establisliment of the Constitution, this Diocese 
(ninety-one Communities and 52,855 inhabitants) with its See at Nico- 
polis, was exposed to the fury of the administration of the Young 
Turks, and suffered durin*? the European War not only from the brutal 
violence of the Moslem bands, but also from the Turkish army itself. 

The Diocese was turned into a vast proi)erty of the neighouring" 
Turks and completely lost for the time being its Christian aspect, 
owing to the number of persons islamised by force, as well as to the 
expulsion of the communities and general destruction wrought every- 
where. Unprecedented cruelties, orgies of terrorism and indescribable 
plundering befell the Christian inhabitants of the Diocese who were 
expelled, as well as those who managed to remain behind. Whatever 
the Turkish imagination could invent was applied to the detriment of 
the Greeks under the powerful protection, and at times at the instiga- 
tion and initiative of the Government officials. 

(«) Nicopolis Region. 

1. VALDJANA, 2. TROUPTSI. These two localities soon 
attracked the situation of the Young Turks. By order of the Governor 
Assaf, in November, 1916, the inhabitants were expelled in the 
space of three hours. No time was allowed them to remove even the 
most indispensable things. This exj)ulsion was notorious for tlie odious 
crimes committed. Sophia Aslanidi, a widow and mother of six 
children, having attempted contrary to the order, to take away some 
chattel with her, was savagely put to death m the presence of licr 

97 H 

eliildren. The wife of Etienne Tzentzmi was violated in the jn-esence 
of her husband, and closed up in the Harem of Tapanoglou Assim. 
Sojihia Karaloglou, and Anatoli Demirdjoglou, were treated in a like 
manner. Parthena Toumanidou rather than undergo the same outrage, 
fell into the river Lycas and was drowned. Nikias Thomaidis, who 
protested against the conduct of those who conducted the expulsion, 
was at once cut to pieces presumably for the edification of the others. 
On the 26th December, 1918, others Christians arrived at Tokat. The 
men were separated from the women and children and dispersed all 
over the region among tlie villages essentially Turkish. 

The tongue of anyone attempting to speak was cut out, and he 
very often lost his head into the bargain. This is what happened 
to Elia Kyhiagopoulo, who being deaf could not hear the order given 
by the Turks, expressed his horror at the sight of the corpses of the 
massacred Armenians. His tongue was first cut out and then his 
head cut off, after whicli the Turks murdered his wife and daughter. 
In 1917, the order came that they were now allowed to return to their 
homes. They started joyfully on their way back, but on arriving 
close to their villages, were attacked by a band of brigands, so that 
terrified, the unfortunate Christians once again sought refuge at Tokat, 
at Gangra and other places. 

The savagery of the Turks, civilians and officials, is indescribable. 
Halil Tapan-Asha and his brothers distinguished themselves beyond 
all others. The former massacred Anastasse * Athanassoglou, Sava 
Yekenoglou, and Maria Tsoulfa, beat pope Stefanos and had his beard 
clean shaved to make a laughing stock of him, tortured Eleftheri Kara- 
guisse, violated his daughter Sophia, and closed her up in his harem, 
cut open the bodies of Sophia Miloglou of Kerassia Tzipig, and of 
Heleni Koupa of Karapazi and cut off the heads of their husbands. 
The hatred of the Turks was such that they prevented the corpses of 
those murdered from being buried, so that they should become the 
prey of the ravens and dogs. The dead bodies of the priest Efthimi, 
of his daughter Elisabeth and of Theophili A. Munigopoulo, were 
thrown to tlie dogs. In an attem])t to drive tliem away, Maria 
Athanassoglou was cut to i)ieces by tliem. 

The fate of the inhabitants of the non-evacuated villages was no 
less terrible. Nicopolis was set fire to, for the purpose of discovering 
the Armenians, who had sought refuge in the Greek houses. The 
Turks made quite a sport of massacre and of i)lundering the property 
of the Christians. They also forced quite a number of people to 
adopt Islamism. 

('') Aloutzara Region. 


The evacuation of these villages took i)lace, sinudtaneously with 
tliat of the jirecedi ng ones ; their inliabitants took refuge in Sivas, 
Gangra and Castamouni. Many old men and women and children 
died of hunger and cold in the mountains. 


(c) Kerdjenissi Region. 


In July 1917, the Mudir came to Kadi-keuy with a number of 
armed Turks and ordered the Christians to evacuate the place within 
two days. This same order was given to the six other villages. 
Thousands of persons, who had been subjected to many trials, were 
now dispersed among the Turkish villages of Sivas, where nothing 
but their destruction awaited them. During the deportation, massacres 
took place, rape was committed, churches desecrated, while small 
children were carried away under the pretext that the Turks wanted 
to protect them. 

(fi) Epessi Region. 


17. TCHAMLI-KIEE. — The inhabitants of these villages were ex- 
I)elled and dispersed about in P'atza and elsewhere. Numerous cases 
of murder and massacre were reported as having taken place during 
the deportation. Basilo Georgiou was savagely murdered at Zara 
after having been plundered, and others met the same fate as revolu- 
tionists and deserters; At Eneunu, fourteen persons were put to death. 

The following villages were persecuted, also partially evacuated, 
viz., Dere-keuy, Kiov-tepe, Arnout-chair, Kayaki-kaya, Tchetoura, 
Koul-ali, Djelep, Kayatepe, Mourassi, Ovadjouk and Kourbaghi. The 
village of Panayia was not evacuated, and those who remained behind 
were condemned to die of hunger, as the Turks i)revented them from 
cultivating their fields. 

The villages of the region of Soucheheri, Kiriki, Yayli-youzou and 
Messoudhie were not evacuated, but their situation became critical in 
consequence of the order given by Feizi Bey, commander of the troops. 
This officer recruited bands among the vilest Turkish element of the 
population which persecuted and plundered the Christians^ violated 
women and young girls in the j^resence of their relations, cut off the 
heads of the young men, and in a word, ruined this region. 



In this Diocese also (145 communities, 77,845 inhabitants) the 
boycott was soon proved instrumental in depriving the Christians of all 
they possessed and reducing them to absolute poverty. Especially in 
the sterile region of Argliyropolis was the distress great, where the 
inhabitants were entirely dependent for their existence on their local 
trade, and that from Russia. The organiser of the boycott here was 
the Grecophobe Djemal Azmi, Vali of Trebizonde, under whose orders 
were the Governor of Arghyropolis and others. General mobilization 
was also among the causes conducive to the ruin of these communities, 
for the male inhabitants who supported their families were taken 
away from their homes. These wretched creatures were the victims 
of the shameful and brutal ill-treatment of their officers, so that it 
was no wonder there were so many desertions. 

Such was the state of things until the Russian advance gave rise 
to a fresh outburst of fanaticism against the Greek element. Soon 
after the fall of Erzeroum, numerous Turks from Arghyropoulis, 
Ardache, and the surrounding country, carrying with them their goods, 
fled through Herrian and Kara-Hissar to S'vas. The majoi'ity of them 
settled In the Turkish village of Monastir (six hours from Ardache), 
where, assisted by the Turks of that locality, they set to plundering the 
Christian villages of the region. They were assisted in their work of 
destruction by the fugitive Turks who fled from Trebizonde, Yomour, 
Platana, Tzikanoi, etc., and owing to the fall of Trebizonde, deviated 
from the route Kiortoum-Sivas, and made for Monastir. 

(fi-) Toroul- Arghyropolis Region. 

4. AMVRIKI. — Abandoning their entire fortunes, the inhabitants of 
these villages, in a naked and starving condition, wandered for wliole 
weeks in the mountains. Women and j^oung girls were violated, and 
a woman with her child, natives of Amvriki, and five inliabitants of 
Phytiana, were murdered. The Churches were plundered first and 
then set fire to. After roaming about for many days, many returned 
to their homes, but no sooner was Ardache taken (8 July, 191(3) tlian 
tlie Turks, after making tiiem j)ay heavy ransoms for their honour and 
lives, expelled the inhabitants to the regions occupied by tlie Russians. 

8. HOPSIA, 9. GHOEI, 10. FETIKES.— These villages were 


plundered and burnt. Their inhabitants took to the mountains. 
Kyriakos Mandedjidis of Papavrani was l>urnt on a funeral pile. 
Fifteen men of Sarandar, four of Iledjouk, ten of Ilopsi and six of 
Gholi were also slaughtered. 

14. ADYSSA, 15. ARTAPER.— These villages shared the same fate. 
Two inhabitants of Adj^ssa were murdered. 


22. BEYTARLA. — These villages were ruined in the same manner. 
Five inhabitants of Ak-tchal, fifteen of Garhaena, twenty of Desmena, 
sixty of Simikli, and fifteen of Sari-papa were murdered. Many young 
girls, as well as the nuns of the monastery of Simikli, were violated. 

Besides these twenty-two villages, ten smaller groupings : Kanak, 
Kelenta, Derena, Almi, Kalitz, Ayani, Simera, Ramatanta and 
Massanant, forming a Greek population of some 2300 souls, were 
scattered, after their homes were first i)lundered and then burnt down. 

At the approach of the occupation of Ardache, the fugitive Turks 
formed bands of irregulars and plundered, massacred and destroyed 
everything and all that was Greek. The greatest catastrophe befell 
the remaining inhabitants of Kurtakous, who were deported to Sivas 
and Tokat. By order of the sub-governor, two days before tlie occu- 
l)ation of Ardache, the houses and shops of the Christians were i)lun- 
dered, and set fire to with petroleum. 

The Turks, during their retreat, pillaged the villages of 

inhabitants took to the mountains. Their property was plundered. 
The villages of 29. DJITI, 30. DJOLOHANA, 31. PALAYIA, 
were equally oppressed. On the retreat of the Russians, the Turks 
returned to complete their work of destruction. The few inhabitants 
that remained in these villages, deprived of all resources, literally died 
of hunger. 

The other inhabitants of the Arghyropolis and Toroul regions were 
not deported and came under the protection of the Russians, without 
further incident. 

0>) Heriana-Kelkit Region. 

Upper Tarsos, Lower Tarsos, Melen, Oulou-Seiran, Makrolith, 
Tsaoul, Zimon, Kum-patour, Papoutz, Tzapoutli, Pintzanta, Touman- 
oloughou, Somki, Parotzi, Zangar, Sion. 

During the Russian advance, all the inhabitants of these villages, 
with the exception of 200, were deported to Sivas. Houses, churches 
and schools were first plundered and then burnt down. Moveable 
property was pillaged, and landed property sequestered by the Turks. 


" <y ' ? e- i e ^ " e ^, o 


fcj Tripoli-Kerassounda Region. 

The following letter Mas written by the Metropolitan of Chaldia 
on the 15th December, 1910 : 

"The Greek-Ottoman subjects of the region and village of 
Kerassounda have surpassed bj^ their wealth and intellectual culture, 
activity and initiative in commerce and industry, all the other elements 
in the country. Since the declaration of the European war, the Turks 
of Kerassounda, realising that the secular protectors of Christianity in 
Turkey were entirely absorbed by the gigantic work before them, and 
could not assist their proteges, nor pay any attention to the perse- 
cutions of which they were the victiijis, calculated that this was the 
time to do away with the Christian element, and especially the Greek 
one, which they considered their most serious and powerful adversary. 
With this object in view, the local C.U.P., having among its members 
some of the vilest of the Moslem elements, waged open warfare against 
the Greeks. Their first step was to send Moslem emissaries to all the 
villages to announce that the Sultan had sanctioned the cancelling 
of debts owing by Turks to the Christians, and ordered the Moslems, 
under penalty of being hanged, not to pay anj^thing to their Christian 
creditors, nor the rents agreed upon to the Christian proprietors. The 
result was that scarcely a Turk paid anything towards his debt owing 
to a Christian. 

The financial system prevalent in this country is to dispose of 
money during the year up to .the month of July, and to begin collect- 
ing it by the 15th of August onwards. The Greeks, however, were 
placed in a very critical financial situation, because on the one side the 
Turks were not allowed to refund them their debts, and on the other, 
the Bank refused them any further credit and insisted upon them 
I)aying up the advances they had received, and lastly, because they 
required their money very badly for the purpose of paying military 

**By appealing to their friends in Constantinople, and by pawning 
their jewelry, the Greek merchants managed to collect sufficient 
capital to allow them to attend to their export trade of nuts, which 
they forwarded by transport through Dedeagatch and Constantza on 
boats chartered for the purpose. Seeing that, in spite of all their 
efforts, the Greeks by their ingenuity managed to resume business 
and realise profits, the Turks first insisted upon being admitted by 
them as partners, and then contrived, assisted by the authorities, to 
expel the Greeks and turned the trade into an exclusively Turkish 

This state of things continues uj) to the present, so that the once 
flourishing financial condition of the Greeks has been completely des- 
troyed. The Turks succeeded, thanks to the toleration and assent 
of the authorities, in excluding all possible competition and increasing 
the prices of everything, including corn, by ten and twenty times more 
than their original cost. 

"Simultaneously with the mobilization of the Turkish army the 
requisition of different articles began. 


The requisition Committee was composed exclusively o^ tiie evil 
element of the C.U.P.'s, who entered Greek shops onl} , requisitioned 
and carried away without taking note of, or giving a receipt for, 
articles such as manufactured «j!f()ods, silk, laces, ribbons, perfumery, 
goloshes for chihlren, blinds, and anytliing else they came across. 
There was no compensation for the unfortunate owners, ill-treatment 
or imprisonment awaited them if they complained. 

Among the poorer classes of the mobilised Greeks, those who 
could not afford to pay exoneration taxes were forced into Labour 
Battalions, without food rations for themselves or their families, and 
under dire threats these poor creatures were very often forced to run 
into debt in order to pay ransoms. If any of them, driven to despair, 
deserted, his family was jjersecuted and mercilessly taxed. 

"At the approach of the Russians, tiie Vali of Trebizonde ordered 
the evacuation of the Moslem villages ot Lazistan and Trebizonde 
and their retreat to the western districts ; tens of thousands of Turks 
emigrated to Kerassounda, and like locusts, destroyed everything. 
Their passage through the Greek villages was marked by pillage, in- 
cendiarism, and all sorts of atrocious deeds. They ousted the 
Christians from their homes and established themselves in their j)lace 
instead. And, as these immigrants plundered the Moslem villages 
also, a state of anarchy soon followed, during which no little blood 
was shed between the Turks themselves, which finally obliged the 
Government to send a detachment of gendarmes to drive them further 
west. They left, taking away with them the cattle and kitchen 
utensils belonging to the Christians, leaving behind them as a re- 
membrance of their passage two epidemics, cholera and typhoid. 

"After the fall of Trebizonde, the Vali accom])anied by the 
chairman of the C.U.P. of Trebizonde and some of its members 
arrived here. It is worthy of mention that this Vali is one of the 
most savage and fanatical of the officials of the State. Before the 
War he was appointed mutessarif of Kize, where, assisted by the 
mudir of the Tobacco Regie, who occupied the same position here, 
he started that terrible boycott which nearly ended in the deportation 
of all the Christians of Rize. At the beginning of the War he sent 
this same mudir to start the boj^cott here ; but the declaration of the 
European War put an end to his scheme. 

"This Vali was the personification of the ideas of the C.U.P., 
according to which the commercial and financial annihilation of the 
Greek element had to be brought about by all means, whether legal 
or illegal, or even by brigandage, so that trade should pass exclu- 
sively into the hands of the Turks, leaving the Christians as their 

"After a short stay here, the Vali took up his residence at Ordou, 
leaving the Caimacham of Kerassounda, Rechid Bey, under the orders 
of a man of his confidence named Omer Effendi. 

"A few days after his departure, some members of the C.U.P. 
entered at night the house of a wealthy merchant, lordanni Sourmeli 
by name, beat him and carried him off to prison, along witli four 
other fugitives, whom they had previously arrested while on the point 


of embarking at a spot close to his house, and accused him of enter- 
taining relations with Russian spies from Trebizonde. Later, another 
well-to-do merchant was arrested on the jilea tliat he Mas planning 
the escape to Russia of two Armenians, doctors at the military hos- 
pital here. These merchants were first conducted to the Court Martial 
of Tripoli, close to the Front, where they were tortured for two months 
in prison. The Council of War then sent them to Ordou, where two 
months later they were acquitted, there being no evidence in support 
of the accusation. 

'*Some days after the two merchants were arrested, a band, 
numbering about 150 individuals, surrounded tlie dwelling of the 
rich merchant, loanni Deliyorghi, at midnight, broke the door open, 
knocked about everything in the house and carried him off. He was 
accused by certain anonymous letters of having made signals to tlie 
Russian vessels passing at a distance. It was proved later on that 
these letters were written by the hands of the accusers themselves. 
Meantime, * the prisoner was sent to the Council of War at Tripoli, 
where he shortly after succumbed to his sufferings, which at his 
advanced age he was unable to bear. 

*'The Officer-in-command at the front, Hadji Hamdi Bey, who 
had carefully gone into this case, and ascertained that it was simply 
a case of calumny, announced bj^ wire the death of her husband to 
his wife, expressing at the same time his regret. 

*'The Greeks seeing that these denunciations were assuming 
disquieting proportions, tried to find out what had given rise to them. 
A Greek, who served as an intermediary in this enquiry, managed to 
see the list, drawn up by order, and dictated by the savage Eshref 
Effendi Sari Mahmout Zade, the principal instigator of all the crimes 
committed against the Greeks. This list contained the names of 
seventeen of the wealthiest and most respectable merchants, who were 
to be arrested and exiled as being dangerous to public safety. 

"The Caimacham of Kerassounda, Rechid Bey, interfered in con- 
sequence of the unjust death of Deliyorghi and the total absence of 
any evidence regarding the accusation brought against these seventeen 
merchants, and energetically protested against their arrest. His 
interference cost him Iiis post, however, for he was replaced by one 
of the most odious satellites of the Vali, the Grecophobe Nihad Bey, 

"The fury of the Turks now turned against the uni)rotected 
villages, in which an era of jjlunder, rape of women and girls, ex- 
tortions and massacres, were all carried out by the ferocious agent of 
the Vali, Osman Agha Firitinoglou, who even now still continues his 
exploits, under pretext of searching for arms and discovering deserters, 
assisted by some fifty armed brigands, and by the comi)licity of the 

"Tlie above mentioned Osman Aglia, an altogether connnon ajid 
illiterate man, is tlie faithful and devoted agent of the Vali. At his 
(the Vali's) instigation and that of the local authorities, he became, 
ever since the outbreak of the War, the tyrant and dictator of Keras- 
sounda and the Greek villages, ill-treating the Christians, i)illaging, 
violating, holding to ransom, murdering, entering the Greek houses 


at niglit with numerous bands of malefactors, requisitioning witiiout 
any special licence, imprisoning according to his caprice, in a word 
spreading dread and desolation among the Greek element. A few 
months before the fall of Trebizonde, the Caimacham, Rechid Bey, 
now on half -pay, transmitted an order of the Vali to Osman Agha for 
twenty-five horses. Without loss of time, Osman Agha, Kiatif Ahmet, 
an assassm, and some other armed acolytes, posted themselves in an 
office in the market, called up the rich Greeks, and by threats collected 
a sum of £300. They pocketed the money and started for the 
villages, forced the Greek inhabitants to del'ver up to them thirty 
horses, without paying a single cent for them and sent them to the 

** About a month ago he suddenly made his appearance in the 
Greek village of Prossori, accompanied by his followers. They 
I)lundered the houses, rai)ed the women, murdered four young Greeks, 
and beat the parish priest to death. He then forced the peasants to 
sign a document certifying that the murderers were Armenians, whereas 
not a single Armenian was to be found in that locality. The matter 
was referred to the Authorities, but no attention was paid to their 

•'Having heard from a trustworthy source that Nihad had de- 
clared in the presence of others that the time had come to revenge 
himself on the Greeks, I called upon him in order to ascertain whether 
the rumour spread concerning the expulsion of the Greeks was true. 
He replied in a vague manner that it might be a question of military 
reasons, which necessitated the removal of the inhabitants of certain 
villages close to the Front of operations. 

"I immediately despatched long telegrams to the Grand Vezir, 
to the Ministers of the Interior and Foreign Affairs, the Minister of 
War, the House of Parliament, to Vehi Pasha, (commanding the third 
Army Corps), to Hadji Hamdi Bey (commanding the Tripoli front), 
to the Patriarchate, and lastly to the Vali, reminding them of the 
loyalty of the Greeks to the State, pointing out the complete absence 
of any reason for their expulsion, which, owing to the time of the 
year, would be equivalent to their annihilation, and demanded that 
the order of deportation be recalled. 

*'In the meantime, however, and in great haste, by order of the 
Caimacham's assistant, the village of Yol-Aghiz on the sea-coast was 
surrounded. All the male inhabitants were arrested and conducted 
to the prison of Kessap, where they received orders to prepare for 
their departure on the following day. 

"But scarcel}^ had two hours elapsed when the mudir of Kessap 
went to Yol-Aghiz, accompanied by gendarmes and armed bands, and 
brutally expelled the men, women and children, the sick and old, from 
their houses, strictly prohibiting them from taking away the slightest 
thing with them, and had them escorted by gendarmes toward Kara- 
hissar, obliging them to march, without luggage, without beasts to 
carry their clothes or food, and pass the night in the open air under 
a torrential rain and severe cold. During the exodus of these un- 
fortunate creatures, Turkish officials, gendarmes and peasants of the 


vicinity, pillaged everything, from furniture and kitchen utensils to 
forage and cattle ; tliey burnt or took away even the doors and 
shutters of the houses. They then surrounded the other villages, as 
well as the town of Tripolis. While the destruction of so many 
flourishing villages was being carried on. Dr. Sed, representing Count 
Schitemberg (then absent), apprised me of a telegram from the German 
Embasy, transmitting a comunication which had been given by the 
Ottoman Government, in which it was said : 'The evacuation of the 
littoral is purely a military measure. The evacuation must not exceed 
the necessary limits from a military point of view. The littoral shall 
be evacuated fifty kilometres in depth, and in a space of one month, 
every one of the deported can fix his day of departure, and choose his 
place of residence, taking away with him as much property as he can 
and wishes to transport. Property will remain intact, and the jwsses- 
sors can leave guards to see to it.' 

"In reply to this communication, I pointed out to Dr. Sed that 
exactly the contrary to what the telegram ordered was being done, 
and proved to him by witnesses the action of the local authorities, 
and the Vali, under whose eyes the atrocities were committed. 
Ignoring the exact nature of the events that were occurring in the 
other villages, owing to the impossibility of communicating with them, 
and relying on the telegram from the German Embassy, I verbally 
asked the Assistant of the Caimacham to procure for us the necessary 
boats and lighters, so as to be able to transport, at our expense, the 
displaced inhabitants, via Samsoun, to the Greek villages in the 
neighbourhood of Yozgat, or else to bring, at our own expense, carts 
and animals for the transport of those expelled from the interior. He 
replied in the negative. On the 20th of November I received a 
telegram from Vehid Pasha, worded as follows : 

'Military reasons render necessary temporary displacement to the 
interior of my Greek compatriots (Ottoman subjects), who have at 
all times, by their acts, shown their loyalty and fidelity. The neces- 
sary steps have been taken that they should be removed at their con- 
venience in safety. No doubt their sojourn and subsistence at Sivas 
has been secured, and orders have been given that those wanting in 
means should be afforded assistance. I beg you to believe that this 
displacement takes place in the true interest of my compatriots.' 

"Seeing to what^ extent the orders emanating from official source 
differed from the action taken by the Vali and his agents, and that 
the latter's way of dealing with this question tended to a real anti- 
Christian i>ersecution, and hearing that the i)eople were threatened 
with a second edition of the Armenian massacres, I referred again to 
the telegram of the German Embassy, and again telegraphed to Vehid 
Pasha, begging of him to authorize the establishment of the deported 
in the Christian villages situated in the vicinity of Koulak-Kaya, at a 
distance of fifty kilometres from tlie coast. The next day I received 
the following reply : 

'I have given orders to the Vali of Trebizonde that the Greeks 
removed from the villages situated between Kerassounda and Koulak- 
Kaya, as well as those who have not yet been deported shall be for 


t(ie present installed in tiie villages around Kouiak-Kaya, and that the 
sick be admitted to tlie Hospital of the Prefecture.' I immediately 
disi)atched a copy of this telegram, accompanied by a letter, to the 
Assistant of the Caimachan, in which I begged of him to act iji con- 
formity with this order. He replied that he had not received any 
such instructions from the Vali. I sent a further copy by special 
courrier to the Commander-in-Chief of the Oendarmerfe besieging the 
villages. In the meantime the Caimacham's assistant went to Koulak- 
Kaya. On his return he declared that no refugee was to be seen 
around Koulak-Kaya, with the exception of 200 sick, whom he recom- 
mended we should attend to." 

The same means were employed to bring about the evacuation 
of the city of Tripoli and the llegion of tlic same name, viz. : Kara- 
Kayia, l^^rseil-maden, Aktche-kiisse, Ouroudjamaden, Tevekli, Nial, 
Kourt-Peli, Ada-douzi, Kara-erik, Aralik-maden, I.ahan-maden, Sake- 
halva, Yayli-dere, Hapsa-tsair, Monastir, Kei)e-klisse, Izagrak, Yeni- 
keuy, Mexen, Sati-maden, Esseli-maden, Tzimalianta, Klevi, Tchiknien, 
Roum, Soyouk-dama, l{akan, Peledxik, Palan, Polakli, Omalohori, 
Ormanohori, Liamlatino, Livadia, Kara-ghoukeli, Yirlik-maden, Kazil- 
kaya, Yezonik, Aslandjik, I.ateron. Then came the turn of the 
Kerassounda region : Kir-harman, Armout-alan, Kotylia, Ayami, Tsal, 
Divliz, Keirez, Kous-kaya, Saraidjik, Yol-aghiz, Kassiopi, Divan, 
Yamourdja-maden, Prassari, Dereli, Karali, Yonio, Kaya-hissar, Melikli, 
Tcherleik, Demirdji-keuy, Kalegune, Kouz-viran, Tepe-keuy, Pazar- 
soumaden, Aptoul-pazari, and thus by the end of 1916, the expulsion 
of the Greek population of this region, 35,000 in all, was completed 
by methods of unprecedented ferocity. The temporary Governor 
of Kerassounda, Nihad Bey, especially distinguished himself by not 
only not allowing bread supplied by the Government to be distributed 
to 2,000 refugees from Tripoli, encamped on the river side of Ak-sou, 
but also in order to show his hatred for the Christians, prevented it 
being supplied by the Bishopric. 

The unfortunate inhabitants abandoning their homes, which were 
immediately occupied by the Turks, were sent to Kara-Hissar. There 
they were divided up into groups, and dispersed. Some were sent to 
the Armenian deserted villages, others to Erpaa and Neocesarla. They 
could settle nowhere, and were condemned to lead a nomad existence 
for six months, many dying of misery. 

All the steps taken by the Bishorpic were in vain, and the only 
reply received by him was : "What business is that of yours ? You 
are only a religious chief, so look to your Church. The refugees are 
State property, and will be dealt with as the State likes." 

Hunger decimated them ; women and children of formerly 
wealthy families, dressed in goat-skins, and often even naked, went 
about the streets of Kerassounda, begging from door to door. It was 
even prohibited to help them ; anyone doing so was brought before 
a Court Martial. 

Permission was asked for to start soup-kitchens for the poor at 
Kerassounda. The Vali prohibited this, declaring that anyone willing 


to contribute to the maintenance of the poor should send the money 
to the Government. 

After the deportation of the whole population of this region, came 
the turn of Kerassounda and Poulandjak. The latter locality, known as 
Minor Greece, owing to its purely Greek population, was evacuated 
in the space of two hours. The Turks had recourse to many expedients 
with regard to tlie evacuation of Kerassounda. On the 28th December, 
1916, a commission composed of three officers arrived at Kerassounda 
in order to carry out the evacuation of the place under a new pro- 

On the 1st of January, the names of sixty of the best families 
were posted up in the market. They were classified as suspicious 
characters, and were given three days in which to leave the town. 
Later on, a further list of fifty families was published. Thanks to the 
steps taken by the Metropolitan, another commission from Sou-Sehir 
investigated this matter, with the result that the expulsion of the 
families was averted. 

After the Russian retreat, and the Turkish advance, many of the 
inhabitants of these regions of the diocese sought refuge at Batoum, 
Trebizonde and elsewhere, in order to escape from famine and the 
cruelty of the Turkish irregulars. The other vilayets of Konia, Angora 
and Sivas, fared no better. They underwent all kinds of oppression 
in the. form of boycott, humiliations and religious persecutions. 


The establishment of a parody of a constitution in Turkey signalled 
the application to this Diocese (fourty-seven Communities and 20,657 
inhabitants) of the programme of the Young Turks. Mobilisation was 
carried out in such a manner that many young men, supporters of 
families, were obliged to expatriate in order to escape the ill-treatment 
and tortures to which the Christians in the Turkish army were sub- 
jected. Taxes were trebled, new ones were brought into force. The 
collecting of these taxes was entrusted to Turkish clerks, to whom 
full power and governmental support were given, in consequence of 
which they increased the taxes at a profit to themselves to be paid by 
the Christians. 

With the declaration of the European War, an era of i)ersecution 
was inaugurated in this Diocese for the purpose of ruining, and if 
possible exterminating, its Greek population. At the outset of the 
War the labour battalions of Christian workmen were constituted, the 


women and children being forced to carry ammunition on their 
shoulders from Trebizonde, DjevizU, and Yemoura to Hapsi-keuy, 
Ardassa and ArghyropoUs, while subject to ill-treatment by the Turkish 
superintendents . 

On the 1 3th of April, 1915, the Turkish military authorities 
ordered the inhabitants of the Diocese comprised in the Turkish zone 
to emigrate to the interior of ArghyropoUs within four days. The 
population dispersed, 4,000 seeking refuge in the forests of Arghy- 
ropoUs, and 2,500 going to the mountains in the region of Ardache in 
the diocese of Chaldie. Six hundred and fifty took refuge in the 
monastery of Bazelone, and 200 hid in the large grotto of the village 
of Kaneka. Another company escaping the notice of tlve sentinels 
passed over to the Russian lines. 

Many of those who had taken refuge in the forests, hard pressed 
by hunger, also tried to pass over to the territory occupied by the 
Russians. Some succeeded in doing so ; but the remainder were 
caught, tortured and conducted to the interior, where the majority of 
them were massacred and thrown into the river Pyxite. 

Following the exodus of the inhabitants of the aforementioned 
villages, hordes of Turkish soldiers and brigands, and Turkish women 
and children, fell upon their homes and plundered them. 
They also desecrated tlie Cliurches and cemeteries. The family 
and relatives of Abraam Paraskevopoulos, all natives of Thersa, were 
subjected" to terrible outrages by the brigands. Eustathios and 
(leorgios Petroglou of the same village were killed. loannis Christofo- 
ridis, the parish priest of Kanaka, his son Constantines, and loanni 
Chrisanthidis, the priest of Yananta, were massacred, Constantinos 
Marthidis, the parish priest of Sahnoi, was murdered after seeing his 
wife violated in his presence. Several priests besides other i)eoi)le 
met with the same fate. 

Those of the inhabitants who sought refuge in the grotto of Kaneka 
were closely besieged, and after resisting for four days, were obliged 
finally to surrender to the Turks. Twenty-six women and young 
girls from among the refugees were carried off by the Turks, and while 
passing over a bridge, they committed suicide by throwing themselves 
into the river rather than undergo dishonouring which they were 
threatened with. All those who took refuge in the interior of Ardache 
and ArghyropoUs were decimated owng to the ill-treatment, forced 
marches, hunger and outrages they underwent. 

In July, 1916, the whole diocese was occupied by the Russians. 
This relieved the Greeks for the time being, but further calamities 
befell them later on when the Russian revolution of September, 1917, 
paralysed all the military operations of the Russians and concentrated 
the attention of the Army on the internal state of affairs of that 
country. The Turks, after consultation and organisation with the 
Pan-islamic Committee (Moussat) at Bakou, were thus able to occupy 
their lost provinces. 

Whole bands of irregulars, under the orders of Commander 
Kahriman Bey, ravaged several villages of the Trebizonde Diocese, and 
blockaded the Rodopolis Diocese. The inhabitants of Yanata, Therse 


and Sahnoi alone expatriated, those of the other villages remained 
after much persuasion. 

On the 24th January, 1917, communication with Trebizonde was 
interrupted, and the diocese was closely surrounded on all sides. 
Bands of brigands first invaded the Galiena Region, plundered the 
inhabitants, and gave themselves up to all kinds of fiendish acts. The 
villages of Spiha, Hava, Kostortos, Mountantes, and Cato-Hortokopi, 
were pillaged. 

Moreover the Turks, instead of protecting the Greeks against the 
elements of disorder, on the contrary completed their work by requi- 
sition and taxation, and so deprived them of every means of sub- 


The monasteries of the Pontus displayed throughout the centuries 
of Turkish despotism all their energy for the national and religious 
safe keeping of the Greek element of the district. This activity, 
coupled with the moral influence exercised by the Monasteries on the 
Christians and the philanthropy shown by their institutions to them 
during the European war, naturally attracted the attention of the 
neighbouring Turks. Tlie latter availed themselves of the opportu- 
nity afforded by the declaration of the general war to openlv proclaim 
their hostile feeling towards the Greeks. 

The monastery of St. George Peristerata fell into the Russian 
hands at the very outset of their advance, and was thus saved. The 
fate of the monastery of Soumela was, however, terrible. On the 
19th April, 1916, the Turks pillaged and i)lundered it of everything, 
so that the monks fled during the night and crossed the firing line to 
I/ivera, a village occupied by tlie Russians, where they took refuge. 

The Monastery of Bazelone was the centre of a tragedy. On the 
22nd April, 1916, tlie Turkish commander of the Kaloyer-Han jwst, 
situated at an hour's distance, caused the monastery to be surrounded 
by gendarmes and soldiers. He ordered all wlio were in it — the monks 
plus 780 Greek refugees and 29 Armenians — to abandon the mona- 
stery in four hour's time, and remove into the interior of the district 
of Arghyropolis. A delegation of monks presented themselves to the 
Commander, and pointed out the wrong that would be done to the 
monastery if this order were carried out. He urged the inviolability 
ensured to the monastery l)y Imperial decree and finally begged of 
him to cancel the order. 

The connnander was adamant. He ordered that the forces should 
be reinforced by bauds of irregulars, and that, if necessary, the evacu- 


ation of the monastery should be carried out by main force. After 
long deliberation, five monks and about 300 Christians evading the 
vigilance of the besiegers, contrived to escape and hide ir^ the 
neiglibduring wood. 

The next day, the remainder were conducted to the Ardache 
(Chaldie) district, under severe ill-treatment. No sooner was the mona- 
stery evacuated than the mussulman population entered it 
and started plundering. All the rich furniture it contained was carried 
away, all the treasure contained in it was p'undered, its archives, bibles^ 
and manuscripts burnt to cinders. The Church was desecrated and 

Tliey now converted the monastery into a place of massacres and 
outrages against women whom they found liiding in the forest and 
brought to the monastery, where the Turks first violated them, and 
then put them to death. Many men were also murdered. fhe follow- 
ing persons, natives of Thersa, were put to death in tne monastery. 
Panayiotis Yordanoglou, George Yerinoglou, Pope Cor.stantinos Pai)a- 
dopoulos, and his wife, Parthena eighty years old, mother of Efstathios 
Karmahita, Patalina (seventy years), and Despin*. Tzironidou. The 
latter, who had escaped to the forest, was conducted to the monastery 
and violated by nine wretches in the presence ot her companions. She 
was then put to death by the fiends. 

P. Yordanoglou and George Yerinoglou were massacred. Their 
wives escaped while the criminals were asleep, and went over to the 
territory occupied by the liussians. Mr. Yordanoglou died from shock. 
Monk Nikiforos, and Panayiotis Paraskevopoulos with his relations, 
were mercilessly beaten and dei)orted. After five days' march, naked 
and half dead with hunger, they reached the district or Arghyropolis. 

The nuns of the convent, situated at a short distance from the 
monastery of Bazelone, were also carried off as prisoners and met with 
a miserable end in exile. 

The Metropolitan of Rodopolis, Monseigneur Cyril, wrote on the 
12th of November, 1918, the following : — 

"One shudders at the accounts given of the atrocities committed, 
and the number of victims. No less than 487 persons, who had hidden 
in the mountains, grotos, and subterraneous caves, were savagely 
massacred. Among these victims were fourteen^ young girls who had 
sought refuge in the monaster}^ of Bazelone, where the Turks, after 
first violating these unfortunate creatures, mutilated them in a horrible 

After the breaking up of the Russian front, and the re-occupation 
of the Diocese by the Turkish Army, these monasteries began once 
more to feed the Christian population, and offer them, as far as lay 
in their power, protection against the aggression of the Turkish bands. 



The fanatical Turks of this diocese (seventy-three Communities 
and 58,734 inhabitants) left free from any control or restriction, gave 
full vent to their savage feelings against all that was Greek and 
Christian. The boycott was started and vigorously applied at Rize 
by the authorities themselves, in May, 1914. Many of the inhabitants 
of Rize decided to emigrate, because the local officials declared that 
unless they did so they would be massacred. The boycott was also 
enforced at Athina (near Rize). The Christians were forced to close 
their establishments and take refuge in Sourmena. The economic war- 
fare also affected the communities of Trebizonde and Ofis, besides 

Ever since the declaration of the European war the fanaticism of 
the Turks reached a greater fervour, and their methods of extermin- 
ation, carried out with greater vigour and activity a few months before 
the fall of Trebizonde, became more and more violent. The steps 
taken by the Bishopric, and their frequent mediations, had the effect 
of somewhat moderating the practice of these cruelties and it was, 
thanks to intervention of this nature, that the proscrij^tion of 300 
Greeks, all Russian subjects and representing the best society of 
Trebizonde, was not effected. 

/ lender date of 12th October, 1918, Chryssostomos, the Metro- 
politan of Trebizonde, wrote : 

*'On the eve of the fall of Trebizonde the Vali quitted the town, 
entrusting me, by official decree dated 3rd April, 1916, with the 
administration of the country. On the 5th April, the Russian troops 
entered the town, and equally trusted me with the temporary govern- 
ment of the Region. ^ Tlie Bisliopric made use of this power, and also 
the prestige the Metropolitan enjoyed with the Russian riiilitary autho- 
rities, for the safe-keeping of the life, honour and i)roi)erty of the 
Turks, all of which were exposed to numerous dangers. 

"The Bishopric, as well as the Christian element of the Diocese, 
made it their duty to protect the Moslems of the Vilayet of Trebizonde. 
The Bishopric was told by the Russian miUtary authorities to rein- 
state the moslem refugees, and although a difficult task, it was carried 
out, and tlie goods and chattels of the Turks, etc., were given back to 
them at their homes at Rize, Ofis, Sourmena, Yemoura, Platana, and 
Matsouka. wScveral tens of thousands of otiier jxMir Turkish refugees 
were provided for by the BishojH-ic out of tlie funds subscribed hy tlie 
Greeks of Russia, and the generous subsidies granted by the Russian 
Government for the benefit of the Christian refugees. 


'*And, while our religious authorities, and the Greek element in 
general, were exercismg tiieir benevolent influence for the benefit of 
the Moslems, the Turkisli Government brutally expelled from their 
homes all the Christians who had remained beyond the Russian front, 
in Elevi and Tripoli, together witli all the Greeks from Pontus, and 
forced them to emigrate to Sivas in the middle of winter, and through 
mountains covered with snow, thus exposing them to certain death. 
Out of 1,250 inhabitants of Elevi, only 150 survived, and 
out of 2,300 of Tripoli proper, about 200. The Christians from the 
district of Tripoli numbered 30,000, Of these only 1,500 to 2,000 
persons were left alive. 

**Two months before the re-conquest by the Turks of the vilayet 
of Trebizonde, Ahmed Bey, President of the Moslem Committee, 
instituted at Trebizonde after the Russian revolution, visited the 
Bishopric with some Turkish notables and craved our protection for 
the Moslems who were menaced by the Bolchevist danger. Our ser- 
vices were at once put at his disposal, I placed myself at the head 
of a mixed Commission of Greeks and Turks, with the object of 
bringing about the collaboration and mutual support of both elements 
at Trebizonde and in the villages, and fight against anarchy. On the 
other hand, I personally took steps with the Bolchevist organisation 
in Trebizonde in order to prevent any anarchical disorder, and acts of 
retaliation which endangered the country, and especially the Moslems. 

"While we were working with the sincerity and generosity that 
characterises the Greeks, the treaclierous Ahmed Bey, judging this 
moment favourable, repaired to Rize, whence he let loose the catas- 
trophe prepared by the C.U.P. against the Christian element. The 
Moslems, who hitherto swore fidelity and devotion to the Bishopric, 
joined the advancing Turkish bands, attacked the country seats from 
Rize to Platana, destroyed all the Greek villages, and massacred many 
Christians, amongst whom were two priests of my diocese. The i)ros- 
perous and flourishing community of Rize was destroyed in a single 
day, and its inhabitants, having been previously plundered of every- 
thing, were compelled to emigrate to Russia. Churches, schools and 
houses wer£ demolished. Out of 2,000 Cireeks, only four remain 
in Rize. The Greeks of Ofis managed to avert diaster for a few days 
by paying heavy ransoms. Later on they were plundered also. The 
district of Sourmana was brutally pillaged. The greater part of the 
inhabitants of this locality also migrated to Russia, without a single 
penny on them. The remainder paid 70,000 roubles in order to be 
permitted to remain at Surmana. All the villages of Yemoura were 
plundered, and the majority of the inhabitants went to Russia. The 
district of Platana was also completely destroyed, and also some 
villages of the district of Trebizonde. 

"I understood, from the very beginning, that this organised 
scheme of destruction aimed at the extermination of the Greek element. 
Consequently, a month before the re-occupation of Trebizonde, and 
at the first symptom of revolt against the Greeks by the Turks, I 
hastened to send a special messenger to the Turkish Headquarters at 
Sou-Shehir in order to inform General Vehid Pasha of what the Turks 

113 I 

were doing to the Christians, and also to implore him to declare on 
his military word of honour whetlier these things actually took place 
at the instigation of the Government, so that I might guide the 
people in consequence as to what had to be done. 

"My emissary reported that Vehid Pasha gave no answer to the 
second question of my conmmnication. I also asked him to send an 
officer, invested with the necessary authority and power, to repress 
the movement in the name of Vehid Pasha. 

•'In the meantime, considering that until Providence assisted us, 
we were bound to protect ourselves, I distributed arms to those of the 
Christian inhabitants who could make use of them. Thanks to this 
measure, and to the resistance offered during several days, Tsita of 
Sourmena and the districts of Kapikeuy, Livera, Hampsi-keuy, as 
well as heroic Santa, were saved. Santa, while defending itself for 
several weeks, contrived to successfully repulse, in more than one 
instance, the assaults of innumerable bands of brigands. At the same 
time I gave notice to Vehid Pasha of the measures I had taken to arm 
the Christians. He sent to me the officer I had asked him for, as well 
as a letter, written and signed in Greek, which he delivered to my 

"The following is a translation of it : — 

" 'Your Grace, 

•' 'The protection you so readily afforded to the Moslem element, 
and the paternal solicitude you gave proof of at the time of the retreat 
of the Imperial armies and the entry of the Russian troops 
into Trebizonde, will never be forgotten by us. We in 
no way ignore that the maintenance of order and the preserva- 
tion of the whole Turkish element, from the time of the retreat of 
the Imperial troops and the occupation by the enemy troops, are due 
to your Grace's wise and enlightened policy. Since the Russian in- 
vasion, and up to this very day, your action guided by your skill in the 
act of governing, has won our admiration, as well as our warm thanks. 

" 'We know for certain that in the neighbourhood of Trebizonde 
Turkish bands terrorise, and at times ill-treat the peaceful" inhabitants 
of the Greek villages. Your Grace knows that, in the discharge of 
my military duties, I treat all the elements living in the Empire on 
an equal footing, and, that in inflicting a punishment or giving a re- 
ward, I make no distinction whatsoever of race or religion. The 
conduct of these bands of brigands is therefore absolutely at variance 
with my principles, and is of a purely local character, and the culprits 
will be punished in due time. 

*' 'I learn, however, much to my regret, that certain youtlis of 
Trebizonde, incited by the Armenians, have taken up arms and are 
causing disorder. 

" 'I beg of your Grace — and I feel quite confident you will do so — 
to pursue the same wise i)olicy under the same circumstances. Your in- 
disputable admirable task will thus be completed, and especially by 
l)re venting all danger to the inhabitants. Your success in managing 
this will be the crowning of your work. Imminent events are already 


known to the Mufti of Trebizonde, with whom you had better make 
all plans. 

" 'I delegare an officer to you, a man of great confidence, to whom 
you can make all communications whether verbal or written, and I 
beg you to give him hospitality. Please also send couriers to Zygana^ 
Ardache, and Gumuch-hane, and recommend the inhabitants to wel- 
come our troops and supply them with food, which will be paid for 
in accordance with my instructions. 

" 'I beg to tender you our reiterated thanks, etc' 

(Signed.) VEHID, 

Commander of the 3rd Army Corps. 

"I immediately replied in Greek : 

** 'Your Excellency, 

" *I thank you for your kind letter. It was quite a great 
consolation and comfort to me, discouraged and embarrassed as I was. 
I thank your Excellency for all you were kind enough to write about 
my humble activity during the Russian occui)ation and the transitory 
regime, or rather anarchy, which preceeded it. Whatever I have 
been able to do is simply part of my duty and mission as a prelate. 

*' 'I thank God for having allowed me to return to you intact 
the trust confided to me during the retreat of the Imperial Ottoman 

" *The Turkish element, a brother to ours, which has been pre- 
served at the cost of great sacrifice, will now be handed over to you. 
All that lay in my hands has been done ; I fought against the tempest 
and saved the Moslems. With reference to the Greek element, I 
can unfortunately only hand over the wreck. I fought for its safe- 
keeping also, but its salvation depended elsewhere. All that may 
still be saved out of this wreck will owe its existence particularly to 
the wisdom and magnanimity of Your Excellency, who will of pity 
hasten to put an end to the work of destruction. On this occasion 
I beg to tender you my everlasting gratitude and that of the entire 
Greek element. 

" 'I await your Excellency's triumphant return to Trebizonde. 
On your arrival, with the aid of God, I beg of you to accept the 
hospitality of my humble dwelling.' 

I remain etc. 

''I meant it to be understood by this letter that, if Vehid Pasha 
and the Turkish Government wished it, the work of destruction would 
cease at once. The officer sent by the Pasha ordered Kahriman Bey, 
officer of the Army, and chief of the irregular Corps already approach- 
ing Trebizonde, to hasten to the villages and establish order. This 
was done. The Turkish Army, arriving a little later, did as much ; 
but in the meantime ruin had to a great extent been accomplished ; 


the panic-stricken j^opulation had emigrated to Kussia, so that the 
Turkish Government found itself face-to-face with an accomplished 
fact. Scarcely 2,300 Christians remained in my Diocese, thanks to 
my persuasion not to expatriate. 

"The patriarchate is perfectly aware that what was perpetrated 
against the Greek element during the crisis appears to be the 
adoption of a vast project by the C.U.P., and carried out by its 
representatives and the government authorities in the provinces. 

"The Turkish government re-established here since the re-occupa- 
tion of Trebizonde continues to-day to oppress the Christians and 
commit all kinds of arbitrary acts. For instance, instead of forcing 
the plunderers to return the stolen goods taken from so many Christ- 
ian villages, a Committee on the stolen goods was instituted, to the 
entire advantage of the Turks, with Hakim Bey at the head of this 
Committee, who decided nearly all the cases brought before him 
against the Greeks. 

"Owing to the reiterated protests of the Bishopric, the power 
which Hakim wielded was taken out of the hands of the Committee 
and bestowed upon the peace tribunal of justice. But the conscience 
of the Judges themselves is so entierly guided by the fanaticism of 
the Young Turks, that the majority among them apply the law in 
harmony with the principles of the Young Turks. 

"According to the opinion of the C.U.P., he who does not 
support injustice and oppression for the benefit of the Turks, to the 
detriment of the Christians, is considered as a non-protector of Islam- 
ism, thus keeping alive the instinct for plunder among the Turkish 
element. It a' so encourages the Turk to lying and calumny as being 
profitable to his interests. 

"These are the sufferings to which the Greek population of this 
district were subjected, the Young Turks being the cause." 

The following is a list of the persons murdered in this Diocese. 
Murdered at Trebizonde : Haralambos Alex. Lavassas (6th February, 
1918) ; at Argali, Lambros Deliveridis, at the time of the retreat of 
the Turks at Messaria ; Onoufrios Kostoglou massacred by Indje- 
Hassanoglou Kiamil (6th April, 1918). at Dourha, T.ambros Adam 
Otai)assoglou and Pandelis Tziripoglou ; at Kilada, the nioutar Illias 
Karakdjis and his son (27th January, 1918) ; at Kerassia, Constantinos 
Congalidis ; at Messona, Efstathios Georgoglou (12th February, 1918), 
at Ouzi, poi)e Abraam Elefteriadis, at Samarouxa : pojje Haralambos 
Pai)adopoulos, Nicolas Polychronidis, Vassiloglou (2nd February, 
1918), Nicolas Tzanaklidis, Chrissostomos Micropoulos, and Dem. 
1'zangalidis (3rd April, 1918) ; at Conga : Nicolas I., Karayannidis 
(30th April, 1918) ; at Fandak : Theod. Karailan, George Panayoto- 
glou, and Constantine Maryoroglou (31st January, 1919) ; at Cosma- 
Madjanta : Haralambos Hadji-Ioannou Amiridis and Despina Pai)a 
Nicolaou ; at Surmena : the son of Spiridon Vassiliadou (native of 
Kinonissa) ; at Petra : Stavros Hadji Antoniou ; at Tzikoli : Efterpi 
Papagheorgiou ; at Kaloyenna : the son of Yordan Kalaidjoglou ; 


loanis Papadopoulos, Efstathios Emmanouilidis ; at Haraka : 
Panayiotis Kessepoglou ; at Potamea : Christos Stefanoglous, and 
Sophia Feizoglou ; at Serra : Stylianos Stefanoglous ; at Kartrea : 
George Georgiades, Constantine Boyadjidis, Panayotis and Sophia 
Mandjeiidou ; at Hatzavera : loani Karoglou. 

The Stavriotes. 

Many Christians of the Diocese of Trebizonde, Rodopolis and 
Chaldie, had in past years, owing to the critical circumstances of the 
time, no other alternative left than to become converted to Mahomedan- 
ism, at the same time remaining secretly faithful to their own religion. 
These conditions prevailed until 1836, when the promulgation of the 
Tanzimat, and the public proclamation of tlie liberty of conscience, 
encouraged them to openly declare their religious convictions, and 
demand their inscription in the Civil list, under their Christian names, 
as well as their exemption from military service. Notwithstanding 
this, no positive result was then obt/iined. It was only in 18(55, owing 
to the steps taken by tiie Ambassadors at Constantinople, that the 
Government consented to recognise as Cliristians 25, ()()() inhabitants. 
This exasperated the fanaticism of the Turks to such a degree, tiiat 
many of the persons newly recognised as Christians were obliged to 
tlee to Kara and Trebizonde. 

Among tliose from Arghyropolis who had sought refuge in the 
valleys of Ak-Dagh, of the Vilayet of Angora, were a number of the 
secret Christians of the village of Stavri (hence the name of Stavriotis). 
After many trials they took advantage of the establislnnent of the 
Constitution in order to be also recognised as Christians. Even after 
Parliament had sanctioned this recognition (1910) the question of the 
Stavriotes still continued to exist under another form. The Govern- 
ment thought of the following plan. According to the Islamic law 
a Clu'istian cannot inherit from a Moslem. Consequently, as the 
Stavriotes possessed landed property inscribed in the Registers of 
the survey of lands under Moslem names, they would be considered — 
once recognised as Christians — as unqualified to inherit landed property 
or real estate figuring under Moslem names, although they were 
practically one and the same person, and therefore would have to 
abandon the property lawfully belonging to them. Things remained 
as they were until the European war broke out, which gave the signal 
for tlie i)ersecution of the Stavriotes of Ak-Dagh, many of whom, 
however, finally gave in, in order to receive their daily bread rations. 

A report of the priests of Ak-Dagh-Maden, dated 8th November, 
1918, makes among others the following statements. 

"At the time of the general mobilisation, as the majority of the 
unacknowlegded Stavriotes were of an age to serve, the recruiting 
office, arbitrarily and in spite of their protests, qualified them as 
Moslems, and enrolled them. Basil, known until yesterday as the son 
of Lazaros, and of a Stavriote woman, was thus to-day named Hassan, 
son of Abdoullah, so that even his father, although a Christian, has now 


been turned into a Turk. Those of the Stavriotes exempted from 
service because they were too old, and for the greater part the sup- 
porters of famiUes, were in time reduced to poverty. They were 
compelled either to ask for ordinary private assistance given to the 
poor families, or to appeal to the Re-victualling Commission. The 
Government took advantage of the situation thus created, and in reply 
to their appeal, declared that they were only welcome to assistance if 
they previously registered themselves as Moslems. Rather than die 
of hunger 200 families complied with the request. Even the priest, 
Joanni, was registered as a Moslem, because of the fact that he was 
married to a Stavriote. In the application of the recent Marriage 
Law it was strictly prohibited for Christians to marry Stavriote women. 
So that when the Christians applied to a priest for that purpose, he was 
referred to an Imam (Moslem Priest), with the result that the Stavri- 
otes have now fallen back, as they did half a century ago, to getting 
married secretly . ' ' 


The Greek element of this diocese (340 communities and 131,181 
inhabitants) was, in 1914, also proscribed by the Young Turk Govern- 
ment. The economic boycott, supj^orted by the local authorities them- 
selves, was accompanied by threats posted up at Amassia, the spirit 
of which may be summed up as follows : 

*'Away with you, Roums (Greeks), infidels. We will massacre 
you ; we will exterminate you to the very last man." The hostility 
and hatred to the Christians were manifested in divers manners, more 
especially by the enforced settlement of Albanian Moslem immigrants 
from Cossovo in the purely Greek villages. The villages of Devkeri, 
Assar-Aghatch, Okse, Tzirakman and others, offered a stout resistance, 
in spite of the threat of the Commander of the Gendarmerie who 
came from Amassia, and ordered them in the name of tlie Govermnent 
to receive the emigrants destined for the Greek villages, or otherwise 
the villages would be destroyed. The Christians, finding that it was 
no longer i)ossible for them to live with the Moslem Albanians, con- 
sidered any further resistance useless, and went to Amassia. By order 
of the Governor of Amassia, and in his i)resence, thirty gendarmes 
discharged their rifles among a defenceless group of men, women and 
children, making many victims. Yani Demitroglou was killed. 
Theodoras Kframoglou, Panika Karapavlou, Anesti Yossifoglou, and 
two women, were seriously wounded. Tlie refugees took flight across 



the fields under the fire of the gendarmes. Turkish immigrants were 
installed in several other villages. 

The same conditions prevailed in the whole Diocese, principally 
at Bafra. Threatening posters, calling upon the Christians to emi- 
grate, were posted up under the very eyes of the police in the Christian 
quarters of the village ; heavy contributions were exacted ; the Greek 
villages were not only forced to receive Turkish immigrants, but to 
feed them for months. The object pursued was simply to intimidate 
the Christians and force them to immigrate. 

In the meantime, the boycott was rigorously applied, Moslem 
preachers of Oumak collected the population in the Grand Mosque of 
Bafra, and imperatively incited the Turkish hatred against the 
Christians. They insisted upon every relation or intercourse with them 
being put an end to, because the latter had subscribed considerable 
sums to the Greek fleet, and were consequently the enemies of the 
country. The same exhortations were made to the faithful every 
Friday in the Grand Mosque of Amassia. 

At the beginning of June, 1914, the Turkish Mouhtars received 
sealed orders wliich they were told to open only at a given signal. 
On the other hand, S,000 Moslem inunigrants assembled in the inns 
of the surrounding villages, awaiting the moment agreed upon in order 
to execute their sinister projects. 

The projected annihilation of the Greek element was put off, but 
in 1916, the Turks had recourse to other methods. Towards the enrl 
of July, 1916, an order was issued that the Greeks should deport. 
As a consequence, Sinope, Kerze with its neighbouring villages, up to 
Aladjam, Ayadjik with its villages, and Ayadin were evacuated. When 
the notables and merchants of Sinoi)e asked why they were expelled, no 
reply was given to them. After eight days' march, the inhabitants 
of Sinope and the remaining region reached Castambol, where tliey 
received the order to immediately proceed to Tache-Keupru, Poivat 
and Saframbol. Their petition to tlie Vali Atif Bey to be allowed 
to remain at Castambol was rejected. A fire broke out at Sinoi)e, 
destroying 400 Greek houses and shops. What little furniture was 
saved was stolen by the Turkish officials. 

In the other regions of the Diocese the gendarmes seeking for 
deserters, entered the dwellings of the Christians and committed all 
kinds of fiendish acts, such as murder, plunder, etc. The lives, honour 
and fortunes of the Christians were everywhere at the mercy of the 
oppressors. On the 10th of August, 1916, Pavlos a native of Pek- 
Alan, Ilias Papa Michael of Semitz, as well as several other Christians, 
were thrown into prison at Ladik (Amassia Province). The two first 
were beaten to death by the gendarmes. On the day of the death of 
Ilias, armed Turks broke into his house, plundered and laid hands 
on everything they found in it. They carried away with them his 
father, an aged priest, six notables and a young girl of eighteen. 
They massacred all, excepting the young girl, whom they kept. They 
cut off the ears, nose, lips, and chin of the priest. 

Armed Turks entered the village of Tepe-keuy on one occasion, 
killed a man and carried a woman away, whom they murdered outside 


the village. At the village of Panayot-Oussali, the miller, Savas 
Toliokoglou, and the son of Ilia Vassiloglou were massacred. Gen- 
darmes murdered four young persons under sixteen, natives of the 
village of Erikli. 

Rumours regarding the expulsion of the Christian population of 
Amassia province and town were spread ever since July, 1916. It 
took ijlace later on. 

The Metropolitan of Amassia writes : 

**On the 27th December, eighty Greeks among the richest and 
most important inhabitants of Amassia were arrested and thrown into 
prison, without any cause whatsoever. They were forbidden to 
communicate with their families, or receive a supply of underclothing. 
The following day they were put into carts and conducted, like the 
vilest of criminals, through the mountains to the quarters of Kavza, 
whence they will be dispersed into different localities. 

"Tiie same day the town was occupied and assumed the aspect 
of a camp. Under pretext that the Governor had something to 
communicate to them, the population of upper Amassia (Kadi Maha- 
lessi) was ordered to assemble at the public-place. As soon as the 
inhabitants assembled, they were arrested and shut up in the barracks. 
The same thing was repeated in the village of Eliaz-keuy. The men 
were taken away unexpectedly, without a cent in their pockets ; the 
old men and the sick were carried there by force brought by their re- 
lations ; women who had just been confined with their newly-born 
babies were not even spared. Shortly after, at 12 o'clock Turkish 
time, all these unfortunate creatures, numbering about 4,000 with their 
wives and children, were marched off into the interior, without any 
food, and hardly properly dressed. Through the whole night long, 
small children and old men, the relatives of the mobilised Christians, 
either already dead or still working in the Labour Corps, were forced 
to march through mountains covered with snow. They looked like 
a flock of sheep being conducted to the slaughter-house. 

"As all communication in the Amassia district was difficult, all the 
sick who could not follow the deported remained behind and died of 
hunger. We buried three women, one of whom had been dead two 
days. It is reported that newly born babies were also found dead 
in their cradles. Then came the turn for plundering. Animals, 
clothes, jewelry, everything found in the abandoned houses was car- 
ried off, and while their owners were marching over the snow-covered 
mountains, their belongings were either being distributed to the 
Turkish immigrants, or sold in the streets. 

"On tlie 1st of January, the poUce entered the Churcli in search 
of the remaining notables of the town of Amassia. Forty persons 
were arrested witliout any reason whatever. All tiiese men were 
taken away from their families, thrown into prison and deported the 
next day into the Interior. Ten days later further proscriptions took 
l)lace. The market was closed. The centre occupied by our tobacco 
merchants is deserted, and the town bears the aspect of a cemetery. 
All the notables and rich merchants, about 300 in all, were expelled. 


"The peasants who sought refuge at Amassia are in the meantime 
being despatched by groups to the interior in a completely destitute 
condition, and we are in ignorance of their fate. We know, however, 
on good authority, that those expelled from Upper Amassia, after 
having crossed the mountains during the night arrived at Karak in 
a deplorable state, where they buried their dead. From Karak they 
were sent to Kavza (vilayet of Sivas) eighty kilometres distant from 
Amassia. They accomplished the distance between Amassia and 
Kavza in four days on foot, without a morsel of food. Between Kazak 
and Kavza, many died on the way from hunger, cold or fatigue, and 
according to the news I received here from the Bishop of Aristia, 
there are many corpses lying on the floor of the church at Kavza. 
Although it was said that the survivors among the refugees would be 
allowed to remain in the Christian villages of the Kavza region, where 
lodging, covering and food would be given to them, they nevertheless 
were all deported to Tchoroum (vilayet of Angora). The young girls 
of Kadi-keuy, firmly persuaded of the fate that awaited them, marched 
along the way to Calvary, singing the popular refrain : "Farewell, 

oh world, farewell oh sweet existence " What will happen at 

Tchoroum ? Where will so many thousand miserable beings be 
accommodated ? How will they exist the winter through in their needy 
condition ? This is a riddle that the experience of the past can solve... 

*'On the 10th and 11th of January more arrests of merchants 
were made. They were expelled to the interior on the 13th. The 
whole country is reduced to a distressing situation and trembles with 
apprehension of greater evils to come." 

The Christians of Amassia, Tharchamba and Bafra, were expelled 
at different intervals and the torments undergone by the peasants were 
indescribable. The Military Governor, Refet Pasha, assisted by 
Behaeddine Effendi, who arrived from Constantmople as a special 
delegate of tlie Minister of the Interior, made out lists of the innocent 
Christians that were to be proscribed. Villages that had escaped 
ravage so far were now set on fire, and their inhabitants deported. 

The Metropolitan, writing under date of the 27th February, 
1917, says : 

"The pretext for this persecution is the presence in the country 
of about 300 deserters who, in order to 'keep the gendarmes at a 
distance, went to Trebizonde for arms, which the Russian torpedo 
boat supplied to them. 

"It cannot be denied that the conduct of the deserters is reprehen- 
sible and that the Government has a perfect right to punish them in 
an exemplary manner. At the same time, however, we fail to under- 
stand in what way can the thousands of women and children expelled, 
as well as the unfortunate villages burnt down, be held responsible 
in any way, the more so as 95 per cent, at least of their relatives have 
either died, or are still working in the Labour Battalions, or else have 
duly acquitted themselves of the exoneration taxes. In what way are 
the inhabitants of Sinope, Kerassounde and Tripoli guilty of, or merit 
the manner they are being treated ? Not a single deserter evei; visited 
the surrounding villages, and yet they are meeting with the same fate 


as the other villages. What is being aimed at is nothing less than the 
annihilation of the Greek element, which, like the Armenian race, they 
desire to disappear under somewhat similar circumstances." 

At the beginning of February, 1916, . eight villages of Bafra, 
whose inhabitants cultivated the best tobacco in Turkey, were burnt 
down, and the people were expelled to the Vilayet of Angora. The 
inhabitants of the eight other villages were expelled to the Interior, 
but the houses were not destroyed, because the Turks required them 
to instal the Turkish immigrants in as soon as they had been evacuated. 
The property of the villages burnt or simply evacuated was plundered 
by the Turks of the vicinity, and the Church vestments were sold in 
the streets at onerous prices. The tobacco of the evacuated villages 
was also sold by the Government by public auction, and at onerous 
prices. The sum realised by these sales was appropriated by the 
Government, while the peasants, who were the owners of the goods, 
died of hunger in the interior of the country. 

Towards the end of February, 1915, the villages of Ada-tepe 
Yelidja, Karakol — ^near Amassia — and twenty other villages of the 
district of Bafra, were burnt down. Many women and children were 
murdered. The survivors were also deported into the interior and 
scattered about the Turkish villages, where, yielding to famine and 
sickness, they died in masses. 

Under date of the 15th March, 1917, the Metropolitan again 
writes : 

"'My latest information regarding the fate of the exiled is distress- 
ing. The conditions under which the inhabitants of our villages have 
been expelled are made known to you in my previous reports. After 
the houses were burnt down, and the plundering of their wealth and 
furniture had been effected, they went away penniless and dei)rived of 
everything. The Turkish villages, in which they are penned up like 
cattle, are poor, and the inhabitants will not consent to give anything 
to the ghiavous (infidels). On the other hand the Government have 
not taken any care of them, so that the programme of extermination 
succeeds marvellously. Now, on the basis of good and positive infor- 
mation, I inform you that two-thirds of the Christians expelled 
liave perished in the Turkish villages of Angora. The remaining third 
are rapidly following the rest. The same fate applies to the Christians 
in the vilayet of Sivas, who had been expelled from the regions of 
Tripoli, Kerassounde, Sinope, and Ineboli, to the vilayet of Castambol. 
It is impossible for me to describe the tortures to whicii these unfortu- 
nate people have been exposed, only because they are Christians and 
Greeks, during the days of expulsion. I should possibly be accused 
of exaggerating were I to relate only part of the atrocities conmiitted, 
such as the abduction of young girls and the massacre of women and 
children, especially around Erekli, Kourou-keudje, etc. 

"But the nation has courageously faced all tlie actual disasters, 
and has added pages of heroism to the golden book of Greek history. 
This is not i)erhaps the moment to give an account of tlie self-abnega- 
tion and virtue b}^ which the Greek nation has added glory to itself 
during this baneful period of its national existence. May I be allowed 


to mention alone the example of the heroic death of the deserter, 
Elefterio Pandeli, native of Karagueul (whose house was surrounded 
by troops, in which his numerous family had assembled), rather than 
see his mother, wife, children and sisters given over to the Turkish 
troops, and preferring a glorious death to a dishonoured existence, 
threw a bomb and died heroically together with his relatives, leaving 
to the gendarmes a heap of corpses. 

"The distress felt by the persecution is somewhat alleviated to a 
certain measure by the fact that among so many thousand unfortunate 
creatures that were subjected to tortures and death, not one felt faint- 
hearted, not one abjured his faith, not one disowned his race. 

"Notwithstanding the projoaganda carried on in the Turkish 
villages, notwithstanding all the promises of the Moslems to women 
and children who weakened in the face of certain death, yet not one 
betrayed his country, his faith, his traditions. They all died bravely, 
as Greeks and Christians, wearing the wreath of Martyrdom, and 
worthy of the eternal gratitude of the nation ; they have taken their 
l)lace also among those legions of martyrs, whom our history has 
mourned during the dark centuries of Barbarism. 

"The Pasha amuses himself while the work of destruction of so 
many thousand existences continues, while thousands of wives and 
children of soldiers are dying far from their homes, cursing the dread- 
ful individual. 

"The systematic destruction of the Diocese continued mcessantly. 
In March, Turkish peasants burnt the villages of Ayak-lalan and 
Hizirlou and reduced completely to cinders the village of Arandjak, 
while the Army set fire to and forced the inhabitants to 
evacuate the villages of Karaman, Dikedjik and Karadja- 
klisse. During this time the remainder of the villages 
were i)lundered by the troops and tlie Turks of the 
vicinity. The milk-giving animals were delivered to the army, so as 
to save them from the irregulars. However, existence, wealth were 
of no importance to the population. Crimes were generally perpetrated 
on the families of men who had either died with the regiment, or were 
still working in the Labour Battalions. For instance, the Turks at 
Tzartak-Gueriz violated many women, of whom Ghethsimani Habe 
and Savato Mina were the wives of soldiers, and a young girl of 
eighteen, Stavroula Hambi, whose father died in the army. At 
Touzerzn, many women and girls, wives and daughters of soldiers were 
also violated, such as Anastassia Pavlou, Paraskevi Michail. and the 
young girl Maria Karapanayiotou. At Kara-Inek on Holy Saturday, 
the Turks of the adjacent villages penetrated into the house of Sava 
Tohmanoglou, tied him up and outraged his wife Photini. On the 15th 
March, Turkish peasants entered the village of Bitzitzik and plundered 
it, they then seized pope Chryssostomos and violated his wife in his 
presence. On the* 30th March the wife of pope Athanasse Indjebel, 
aged 55, was violated by a soldier. On the 25th of April, Varvara 
Elefteriou wife of a soldier (25 years), Tolika Vassiliou, wife of a 
soldier, Parthena Pilpiloglou, daughter of a soldier, a child ten years of 


age Stavroula Sava, and another of fourteen, Magdala, daughter of 
pope Machail, were violated. 

If such was the conduct of the Turks towards the wives of Chri- 
stian soldiers, one can easily imagine what the sufferings of orphan 
families, of widows, or women, without any protection, must have 
been. On the first of April, Holy Saturday, the Turks of the village 
of Sihlik (f],rpaa) again penetrated into the village of Sernitz, plunder- 
ed the Church, beat those present there, murdered a child ten years 
of age and retired. In March the Turks of the district of Kembi, 
known by their names, came to Tangarlou, murdered eight Christians, 
among whom was a young girl of fourteen years old, Eva Ananiou. 

On Holy Saturday, they returned to the same village, part of 
which had been destroyed by fire, plundered everything that had 
escaped the flames, massacred pope George, murdered Elefterio Pavlou 
eighty j^ears of age, cut him to pieces, and hung his flesh on the trees, 
like in a butcher's shop, murdered Sultana Demirdji Tanassi (sixty 
years) Athanassius Karayanoglou (sixty), Leonce Savoglou (fourteen) 
and Constantin Panayiotoglou (twelve). The persons massacred as well 
as women violated were very numerous. 

In many villages either evacuated or burnt down, Turks came and 
established themselves as supreme owners, and the Government gave 
them ploughs to till the fields confiscated from the Christians. Cadi- 
keuy, a beautiful Greek village on Upper- Amassia, as well as Eliaz- 
keu}^ were entirely transformed into Moslem refugee centres. They 
burnt the windows and doors of the abandoned houses, and soon trans- 
formed them into ruins. 

In October, 1917, the authorities of Bafra, distributed arms to the 
Turkish peasants, it was said' to be able to defend themselves against 
the brigands, in reality though for the purpose of killing the Chri- 
stians. This at least was what the Turks thought who told the Greeks 
in this manner : 

"How dare you come out of your houses ? Do you not know, 
that the Government has given us arms to kill the Ghiaours ? " And 
this thought soon manifested itself by acts, when the following people 
were massacred : Parashos Papezon, his wife and son at Mesiriz- 
Ghedighi ; Demetri Silahsiloglou, Isaac Karasava, Yordanis Toi)aloglou, 
and Parashos Tzeviloglou, of the village of Kara-keuy, Yannis Kaladjo- 
glou, Panikas Tokatli and Parashos Sari Simeon of Payali, Kodja 
Avraam, with his three small children of Ak-Konei, Hadji Demetri, 
(Jeorge and Isaac Arai)oglou of Kovdeje-sou, and Ilias, son-in-law of 
Kutchuk Yorghi of Bafra. 

On the 16th December, 1917, an order posted up at Bafra, called 
upon the inhabitants to regulate tlieir business matters in ten days and 
hold themselves ready to be deported. At the expiration of the de- 
lay, their deportation to Amassia began and in the middle of winter. 

The Metropolitan of Amassia, Germanos, did not escape the ani- 
mosity of tlie Young Turks. On the 15th of October, 1917', the 
Governor of Amassia sent for a policeman, and ordered him to quit 


the DioceSe at once and go to Constantinople under escort, for not 
liaving handed over the Greek deserters, who some time ago, had 
attacked the Turkish village of Tcharson. His protestations were of 
no avail, so escorted by a Su[)erintendent of Police, he arrived in 
Constantinople at night and was kei)t at the General Direction of the 
Police until the next morning, after which he was let free, on condition 
that he would not leave Constantinople. 

The conclusion of the Armistice restored the Metropolitan to his 



The boycott was preached in the Mosques and made the object of 
incitement against the Greeks by special emissaries, also threats and 
acts of oppression were applied to this Diocese (195 Communities, 
67,424 inhabitants). A proclamation was distributed and posted up, 
dated June 1914, and in lieu of a signature the words : "Atech" 
(fire) Young Men's Vengeance Association. The following is a 
translation. It was couched in the most violent language and calls 
upon the Moslems to revenge the Macedonian atrocities committed by 
the Greeks, and demands as well their expulsion from Turkey. 

Terrorism side by side with the boycott continued until the begin- 
ning of the European War, when the Turks applied ^he same means 
of extermination here, as elsewhere. 

(«) Cotyora (Ordou) Region. 

Since the year 1917 and after the expulsion of the peasants of this 
district, it was predicted that the turn of the inhabitants of the town 
would come. The Vali of Trebizonde, Djemal Azmi Bey, resided at 
this time at Ordou, and taking advantage of the panic and impotence 
of the Christian population, he proposed to them, as a means to avert 
expulsion, to transport 200 tons of victuals monthly for the Army from 
Ordou to Messoundie, at a distance of 120 kilometres. This proposal 
was of course accepted. On the 19th August the town was bombarded 
by the Russian fleet, which afterwards retired, carrying off some Greek 

Expulsion began in September 1917. The inhabitants were 
scattered throughout the Vilayets of Sivas anl Castambol, with the 


exception of some 2500 jiersons, who went to Trebizonde by sea and 
thence crossed over to Russia. 

The deportation of the Greek villages around Ordou took place 
between October 1916 and September 1917, without any military 
reason, but simply with a view to their extermination and the plunder- 
ing of their wealth. These villages are : Vona, Teke, Yasson, Fernek, 
Kaya-Bashi, Haidar, Alandjak, Oloukli, Artouh, Ova-Tchikour, 
Andouz, Aghio-Antoni, Keuk-Omer, Tepe-Kaya, Tchiflik-kiran, Kizil- 
Rouz, Kazandjilou, Elez-keuy, Yeni-Bazar, Kizil-Ot, Ouzoun-Ali, 
Semen, Ahirlou and Pei-Alan. 

Under date of the 29th January, 1917, Polycarpos, Metropolitan 
of Neocesarea and Kotyora, wrote : 

''Instead of conducting the unfortunate deported by the shortest 
roads, care was taken to increase their sufferings by conducting them 
through far distant and dangerous paths and grossly ill-treating them. 
Small children and newborn babies were thrown down precipices, cr 
stoned to death, the priests insulted and ill-treated in various ways. 

"My vicar. Archimandrite Theodoritos, while administering the 
Holy Communion to the Christians about to be exiled, was brutally 
insulted and chased out of Church by the police superintendent Hamdiz, 
a native of Kerassounda, now at Trebizonde. Pope Chryssostomos, 
an old man, vicar of Vona, ventured to return from exile to his village. 
He was handed over to a gendarme, who conducted him here bare- 
footed, and on the way insulted and beat him. He died three days 
after. Pope Yanni, vicar of Aiidouz (Hapsana Region) was arrested 
and imprisoned, and beaten daily, under pretext that he was cognizant 
with the facts in connection with two Turkish deserters, killed by 
other deserters. He fell sick of ill-treatment, had his head and chin 
shaved and was taken to the Turkish hospital where he died. Pope 
Lazarus, vicar of Elez-keuy of the section of Polemi, accused of having 
given hospitality to two brigands who had killed and burned two gen- 
darmes in the fields, was thrown into prison, and finally put to death. 
To these outrages is added a long list of further victims, among whom 
are many priests and notables, belonging to the district. 

(h) Ounia Region. 

The evacuation of the following villages of this region took place 
already in December 1915, viz. Tzaguere, Touz-messe, Tchoktzc, 
Tzillar, Kiretch-tepe, Liman-dere, Tere-Bashi. 

With regard to the Community of Ounia, deportation began in 
July 1917, and was continued at intervals. The gendarmes beat and 
plundered the inhabitants, and scattered them between Castmbol, Zile 
and other parts. Many Christians in order to escape from the tyranny 
of the Turks took shelter in the woods, where they dwelt for several 
months. Three hundred of them, in a most jiiteous state, went to 
Trebizonde and thence to Russia. 

Extracts from the following letter written from Ounia, under date 
of the 10th March, 191 7^ give an account of the horrors perpetrated : 

**Shortly before our expulsion, a detachment of troops arrived. 


Ismail Bey, a Circassian, was at the head of these savage hordes of 
Kurds. After having brought as many men as he could together, he 
shut them up in a liouse and despatched them by groups of two or 
three at a time to the slaughter house he had prepared beforehand. 
**What happened to the women and children after that is also 
beyond description. All the nice-looking women and girls belonging 
to these unfortunate peasants were raped and dishonoured. Some man- 
aged to flee to the mountains, part were saved ; others died of hunger ; 
and others returned again, only to be murdered. But even the men, 
women and children who survived did not fare much better. At first 
they were dispersed to the surrounding Turkish villages, where they 
were treated as slaves. A few months later on they were exiled to 
tlie interior of Asia Minor." 

(c) Ineboli Region. 

The first community to be expelled was that of Djide. In June 
1916, the inhabitants received the order to assemble at the sea shore 
and were embarked on sailing vessels and despatched to Ineboli, with- 
out being allowed to take anything with them. The day after the 
arrival of those expelled from Djide (22 June), an order was given to 
the inhabitants of Ineboli, to prepare also during the week for their 

Ineboli being evacuated as well as the neighbouring communities 
of Patheri, Atsidono, Karadja, Askordassi. The inhabitants and the 
sick of Djide, were conducted to Castambol. . 

The establishment of Christian refugees at Castambol in no way 
served the programme of destruction i)ursued by the Turkish patriots, 
hence a second deportation, surpassing in brutality the first took j)lace. 
The refugees were sent to Tatai, Aratch, and Gangrass and thence 
to the Turkish villages of the neighbourhood and the Moslem borough 
of Tcherkez. 

The Turks committed great destruction in this region and burnt 
down the Church at Patheri on the eve of the expulsion from Ineboli 
and plundered the fine library of the Central School. 

(d) Fatsa Region. 

The Turks looked upon many of the inhabitants of Fatsa as sus- 
picious, and oppressed and imprisoned them, obliging some Christians 
to undertake the hazardous journey across the Black Sea in small boats 
and seek refuge in Russia. The Turks profited by this to exile many 
Greeks (November 1916 — February 1917) to Amassia, Tokat, Zile and 
other places. Their houses were demolished and their wealth con- 
fiscated. At this period certain villages of the district : Eles-keuy, 
Jasso, Tepe-Meli, Ouzoun-ali, Thayirli-Yatak, Kouzoul-Otou, and 
Ketzilissi, were evacuated. The same violent means were employed 
here as elsewhere. 



Documents of the Patriarchate Relating to 
the Persecution of the Greek Element. 


The Greek Patriarchate, conscious of its mission, took all the 
legal steps necessitated by the circumstances through requests either 
directly or indirectly, either by writing or through the channel of 
delegations and commissions that the situation should be remedied. 
No amelioration, however, being reached in the situation, a delegation 
presided over by the Patriarch presented themselves to the Minister of 
Justice and handed him a Mazbata "Mempire" drawn up with great 
firmness. It was rejected by the Minister, and ended in a rupture 
between the Patriarchate and the Minister of Justice, whereupon the 
former addressed a Takrir to Said Halim Pasha. 

The Grand- Vizir tried to give satisfaction to the Patriarchate, and 
begged of the latter to resume relations with the Ministry of Justice. 

The Government also renewed the promise of immediate repression 
of the evil, and insisted upon the necessity of a reconciliation among 
the various elements, but considered quite impossible the return of 
the expatriated, as already declared by the Grand- Vizir to his Ex- 
cellency the Russian Ambassador. In the meantime, however, the 
situation was increasingly becoming worse ; persecution had now ex- 
tended to Asia-Minor, so thafthe Patriarchate had no other alternative 
left it than to suspend, as a last resource, the services in the Churches 
and the functioning of Schools in token of a general mourning (25th 
May, 1914). 

This supreme resolution of the Church was promulgated by an 
Encyclical letter to the Metropolitan of the Patriarchal See, transmitted 
by patriarchal letters to the Autocephalus (independent) Churches, and 
communicated by separate notes to the Great Powers, begging of them 

129 ' K 

to undertake the introduction of reforms into Turkey and to enforce 
the return of the populations expelled. 

This state of affairs could not, however, continue indefinitely, for 
the breaking out of the European war would no doubt involve sooner 
or later the Greek nation in the struggle. The reiterated assurances 
of the Government, promising to fulfil the demands of the Patriarchate 
determined the latter to re-open the Churches and Schools, and to 
allow them to resume their regular functions (28th July, 1914). This 
decision was communicated by "teskire" to the Minister of Justice. 

Takris— Teskeres. 

To His Excellency 

The Minister of Justice and Public Worship. 
Your Excellency, 

The repeated steps taken by this Patriarchate with the Imperial 
Government deal, so far, with complaints regarding a certain number 
of deplorable events which took place in specified localities. We now 
regret to ascertain that these events have increased in number and pro- 
portion, and have gradually assumed a general character. 

Thus, for example, the amnesty granted, in consequence of pre- 
vious solicitations of the Patriarchate, not only remained without 
result, but what is more, persons pardoned by amnesty were either 
again imprisoned after having been released, or were expelled and 
prevented from returning to their homes. Further, pursuits and im- 
prisonment based upon false denunciations still continue. With re- 
ference to the economic boycott carried on so far on a restricted scale 
against the Orthodox Greeks, it is now applied on the whole extent of 
the territory and is being publicly stirred up with the assistance of tlie 
Government officials. Commercial transactions are practically non- 
existent with the Orthodox Greeks, and any Moslems desirous of 
continuing their relation with them are threatened. Moreover, the 
Orthodox Greeks of certain regions are, under divers means of pressure, 
forced to emigrate, and are replaced by Moslem immigrants. In num- 
erous localities money is extorted by force. Therefore the "Patriar- 
chate" is convinced that a merciless ])ersecution aiming at the total 
annihilation of the Greek Orthodox element has been started ; a con- 
viction which is well founded, especially after the many assurances 
and promises given by the Government to the Patriarchate on the 
occasion of complaints made regarding previous events. 


The Patriarchate energetically protests in the name of the Greek 
Nation against the intolerable situation and declares that unless efficient 
measures are taken immediately to put a stop to this state of things, 
the responsibility of the grave consequences that may result from this 
situation will assuredly rest with the Government. 

25th February, 1329/1914. 

(Here follow the signatures of the Patriarch and of the Members 
of the two Bodies). 


To His Highness 

The Grand Vizir. 

Your Highness, 

We beg to hand you, under cover, a copy of a Mazbata that the 
two Bodies decided yesterday should be communicated to your High- 
ness. Although we were under the impression that the sad events, 
which, as is proved by the aforesaid Mazbata, are spreading all over 
the whole Empire, and aiming at the annihilation of the Loyal Greek 
Orthodox Nation, would be taken into serious consideration. His Ex- 
cellency, the competent Minister dealing with this question between 
the Patriarchate and the Government, has behaved in a maimer incom- 
patible with the respect due to the person of the Patriarch, and tlie 
high dignity with which he is invested. 

Your Highness is consequently requested to smooth over the re- 
grettable incident which has just taken place, and kindly take into 
consideration, without delay, the demands expressed in the Mazbata 
of the Patriarchate. 

^ The Patriarchate of the Greek Orthodox. 

26th February, 1529/1914. 


To His Highness 

The Grand Vizir. ' 

Your Highness, 

The Patriarchate has taken note of the communication made to 
i": in the name of Your Highness. It regrets to see that Your High- 
ness entirely agrees with the views of His Excellency the Minister of 
Justice, Ibrahim Bey, regarding the Mazbata addressed to the compe- 


tent Ministry which considers as non-received owing to the use of the 
terms "protest,, and ** responsibility on the Government." 

The Greek Patriarchate esteems that in a Constitutional State like 
ours, every free citizen, even the lowest, has a right to protest when- 
Over he considers that his civil and political rights, ensured to him by 
Law and the Constitution, are affected in one way or another. In a 
greater measure even does this right belong to the Greek Patriarchate, 
especially after the failure of its numerous previous steps. 

With reference to the question of responsibility, the Patriarchate 
esteems that inasmuch as the Patriarch is obliged to look 
after — in a responsible maimer towards His Imperial Majesty 
the Sultan and towards the Empire — the security and good 
order among the Christians placed under his authority, he 
has the right to reject any such responsibility, whenever the 
situation of the Christians becomes problematic ; and that Orthodoxy 
in general to whom he is a responsible guarantor is affected. 

The Patriarchate is convinced that after these indispensable ex- 
planations it will please the Government to take the facts denounced 
by the preceding Mazbata into consideration, and take the necessary 
steps in order to re-establish the authority of the Law and guarantee 
the welfare and just treatment of all citizens. No more delay is 
possible, for the situation has become so aggravated as to drive the 
poi>ulation to despair, and more especially the Patriarchate, from whom 
the Christians expect help. 

We beg, in consequence, to reiterate our demand with regard to 
tlie adoption of efficient measures capable of promptly curing the harm, 
and re-establishing the tranquillity and order of which the Christians 
are really now deprived. 

The Patriarchate of the Orthodox Christians, 

15th March, 1330/1914. 


To His Holiness 

The Patriarchate of the Greek Orthodox. 
Your Holiness, 

The Takrir of Your Holiness under date of the 15th March, 
1330/1914, has been read. 

As is evident by the explanations furnished by H.E. the Minister 
of Justice and Public Worship in the matter in question, that the 
attitude of H.E. was never intended to be in the nature of an insult, 


and as on this occasion a misunderstanding lias arisen, we beg Your 
Holiness to consider this incident as definitely closed, and to resume 
Your relations as in the past with the Ministry of Justice and Public 

The Grand Vizir : Said Halim. 
17th March, 1330/1914. 

To His Excfxlency The Minister 

OF Justice and Public, Worship. 
Your Excellency, 

According to information received from Uodosto and other locali- 
ties, the Christian Orthodox Greeks in many parts of Thrace are 
forced to expatriate with their families. The situation under the initia- 
tive and action of certain local officials is daily getting worse, and 
refugees of different places are arriving here in a lamentable condition. 

According to the aimexed list, it is obvious that the evacuation 
of the Caza Vize is being rapidly carried on. 

It cannot certainly escape Your Excellency's notice that the forced 
emigration causes great uneasiness to the Patriarchate. For, on the 
one hand, it is deprived of so many thousand Christians, and on the 
other, it witnesses the desperate position of its flock created by this 
forced emigration. 

Neither can Your Excellency avoid perceiving the unfavourable 
impression it has made on the other Christians. 

The Government are consequently called upon to put an end to 
the evil ; to punish the officials who provoke this imigration, and to 
take the necessary measures for the protection and safe keeping of the 
Orthodox Christians of Thrace. 

The Patriarch of the Orthodox Greeks, 

29th March, 1330/1911. 



To His Imperial Majesty, 

Sultan Mehmed Rechad V. 

Your Imperial Majesty's humble prior, Head of the Loyal Ortho- 
dox Nation accomplishing him by the glorious conqueror Sultan Ahmed 
Han II, and other powerful predecessors of Your Majesty^ finds him- 
self under the painful necessity of bringing to your notice the cruel 
and intolerable situation to which the nation at large has been reduced, 
more especially the Greek Orthodox nation of Thrace. 

In the High Firman (concession) promulgated by Your Imperial 
Majesty's Glorious Father, relating to the ''Reforms" and communi- 
cated to the Grand Vizirate (1856 — 1272), it is textually said as 
follows : "The guarantees promised by me, by the Hati Cherif of the 
Gul Hane and the laws of the Tanzimat to all subjects of my Empire, 
without distinction of rank or religion, for the protection of their lives 
and fortunes, and the safeguard of their honour, are again confirmed 
and sanctioned." 

As a matter of fact, 'although Imperial Decrees which, properly 
speaking, constitute the fundamental Chart of the Grand Ottoman 
Empire have been renewed and inserted in the treaties concluded 
between them and the European Powers, they are 
nevertheless to-day reduced to acts devoid of signification 
and value, judging by the disastrous persecution which 
has been going on for some time back, by iniquitous 
and other means unknown up to this date. Such are the economic 
boycott, the imposition of arbitrary taxation under the form of sub- 
scriptions, false denunciations, imprisonments, threats, oppression and 
murders, which means, as it transpires from the list of acts of violence 
and ill-treatment handed to the Grand Vizirate and to the competent 
ministers, the perusal of which certainly moved Your Imperial Majesty, 
also that the Greek Orthodox inhabitants of Thrace, his faithful sub- 
jects, have been expelled from their ancestral homes by armed bands 
composed of criminals of the worst kind. They are subjected to all 
kinds of ill-treatment, stripped of their property, and their lives ex- 
posed to every sort of danger, so that the Orthodox Greeks, who 
formed since the establishment of the Ottoman State the most energetic 
and active element in the country, are obliged to abandon their native 
land and emigrate elsewhere. 

In the High Firman (Schevam 1269 — 1852) given to the prede- 
cessors of the humble prior of Your Imperial Majesty, Germanos IV, 
the following is said : 

"And, Thou Patriarche, after having become acquainted with it 
shalt ever act in conformity with my sacred order, carefully avoiding 
anything to the contrary ; in the event of anything opposed to my 
said decision occurring, hasten to bring it to tlie notice of our Sub- 
lime Porte." 


Whereupon I, in obedience with this High Commandment, com- 
municated in due time to the Government of Your Imperial Majesty 
the acts connnitted against my spiritual flock in against the said 
decree. Nevertheless I have to announce witii regret that hitherto 
no measures have been taken to put an end to this disastrous persecu- 
tion as well as to an altogether lamentable and unheard of situation. 

Taking into consideration this state of things, and seeing that the 
re-establishment of our Patriarchate at Constantinople as a religious 
centre of the Orthodox Greeks was done and sanctioned by the supreme 
will of the glorious Conqueror as well as by the other glorious ancestors 
of Your Imperial Majesty, I supplicate Your Majesty in the name of 
justice, and of humanit}'^, and in the real interests of the Empire, to 
order the entire application of the aforesaid Imperial Decrees with a 
view to the suspension of the abnormal situation in which my nation 
is actually placed, before we are obliged to reflect on the expediency 
of the further existence of our Patriarchate at Constantinople. 

The Humble Prior, 

The Patriarchate of the Orthodox Greeks, 

May 3rd, 1330/1914. 


To H.E. The Minister of Justice and Public Worship. 

Although, following upon the reiterated steps taken by the 
Patriarchate, the Government have promised to undertake, and have 
declared that they have done the necessary thing to prevent the emi- 
gration, prejudicial in every way to the State of the Orthodox Greeks 
of Thrace, who are obliged to abandon their homes *en masse', and 
that the Government will not fail to take the necessary measures, 
nevertheless, this condition of affairs is, according to correct informa- 
tion received, prevalent in other regions and is assuming greater pro- 
portion and strength. 

Seeing that the gravity of the facts is worthy of attention and 
admits of a certain responsibility, that the measures also hitherto 
taken have proved insufficient, it would appear necessary in the very 
interest of the State to at once extend to Thrace also the reforms al- 
ready commenced on a grand scale in Asia, with a view to reconciling 
the different elements therein. It is therefore understood that the 
Government will take into due consideration these measures of reform 
which, through their urgent character, call for immediate attention. 


Seeing that in order to complete the efficacious measures with a 
view -to the cessation of the emigration, which has to-day reached an 
acute stage, it is expedient to send to Thrace a special Commission 
composed of appropriate functionaries, accompanied at the same time 
by a -Delegate of the Patriarchate capable of facilitating his work. 
He should also be invested with the necessary power with a view to 
the cessation of this intolerable situation. We are fully convinced 
that the Government, whose sincere intentions are well known to thjs 
Patriarchate, will instantly make the necessary arrangements, tlms 
puttiliiig an end to the emigration which is of a nature to make the 
Greek Orthodox nation sceptical as to their present and future 

The Prior, 

The Greek Orthodox Patriarch. 

3rd May, 1350/1914. 


Your Holiness, 

Your takrir of the 29th March has been taken note of, with its 
appendix in which Your Holiness draws attention to the fact that 
the Greek Orthodox of various localities of the Vilayet of 
Andrinople, and especially that of the Caza of Vize, are by thousands 
expatriating themselves with their families owing to the pressure put 
upon them by the Government officials, a position which causes the 
Patriarchate feelings of great uneasiness. 

Following an exchange of correspondence with the Ministry of 
the Interior, the latter has handed in a reply from the Vilayet of 
Andrinople with the information that, according to evidence taken 
on the spot, no persons were expelled or proscribed from the villages 
of Karatsali and Ciraponna of the Caza of Kechan, as written by your 
Patriarchate ; that there is no village at Kechan of the name of 
Karie ; that the news of 300 people emigrating from Ipsala is with- 
out foundation ; that between five and ten thousand from that locality 
escaped into Greece in order to evade military service ; that some 
of them, on the point of flight, were arrested and brought back to their 
country which proves that they were not the object of any violence, 
but were, on the contrary prevented from emigration, and that thanks 
to the measures taken, the inhabitants of Akour-Kourouojou, Hidir 
and Sultan-keuy have returned to their villages ; that at Cherkeuy 
not a single peasant expatriated liimself in consequence of ill-treatment, 
neither was he forced to pay obligatory subscriptions. That the 


villages of Mangrlotissa, Hasboiiga, Aya Anna, Ayos Jannis and 
others were not attacked by Albanian bands, that there actually 
exists a written statement by the vicar priest, Anastasius, and from 
the Mouktar, expressing their gratitude for the measures taken to stop 
the Greek emigration from this town ; and that as proved by doca- 
mentary evidence and the insistence of the people to emigrate who 
did not heed the advice of the aforesaid vicar and the delegates of 
the Patriarchate this emigration is the result of Greek instigations to 
do so, like in the case of the Greek Orthodox people belonging to the 
villages of Ahmed Bey, Aivaly and Polon. No acts of aggression have 
been committed against the Greek Orthodox of the village of Yenna, 
and apart from the houses in the village of Scopos where the Mussul- 
mans have been settled from time immemorial, emigrants were not 
installed in any Christian house. Also no inhabitant of- Mandra 
(Demolica) was driven out across the frontier, and on the contrary these 
villagers go about their business quite quietly, and that only a few of 
the inhabitants of the Greek villages emigrated of their own accord. 

The present Tezkere has been written to inform you of what has 
taken place. 

The Minister of Justice and 

Public Worship. 
27th May, 1330/ 1914. 


To H.E. The Minister of Justice and Public Worship. 

We have the honour to bring to the notice of Your Excellency 
tliat the Patriarch, viewing with distress the terrible persecution which 
our nation has been for so long a victim of in Thrace, has addressed 
at different times to the Government, either verbally or through the 
channel of the Special delegations, or in writing through the Takzir, 
even lately, a petition to the Sovereign himself asking for the dis- 
continuance of the evil in question. 

The Government have always recognised the justice of our demand, 
but unfortunately nothing has been done, thousands of families have 
been lost ; and despite all assurances and promises the catastrophe 
continues. While all the attention of the Patriarchate was absorbed 
by the events in Thrace, it suddenly heard to its surprise that this 
evil had been let loose with equal ferocity. 

The two administrative bodies of the Patriarch, conscious of the 


terrible responsibility which they have towards the Nations and of 
Christianity in general, and participating in the heavy mourning of 
the Nation, which it would appear, is doomed to annihilation, pro- 
ceeds forthwith to suspend the religious functions in the Churches 
and the functioning of the schools, having decided to resign and there- 
by relieving themselves of all responsibility ; at the same time they 
make an appeal to the Autocephalous Orthodox Churches, and to the 
whole of Christianity, to implore their help. 

Patriarch of the Orthodox Greeks. 

27th Maj^ 1330/ 1914. 

To His Holiness the Patriarch of the Greek Orthodox People. 
Your Holiness, 

We have received, and submitted to the Grand Vizier, 
the Takrir of Your Holiness which says "that although having 
often applied to the Government and even sent a memorandum to His 
Imperial Majesty on the subject of the events which are taking place 
for some time now in Thrace and asking for the cessation of this 
situation, the necessary measures have not been taken, in consequence 
of which the aforesaid situation has begun to spread to Anatolia. The 
Patriarch has decided therefore to close the Churches and Schools and 
to resign the Trust he has hitherto held." For answer the Grand 
Vizier has ordered the following communication to be made to Your 

The Imperial Government has already proceeded, on the one hand, 
to examine the acts of suppression which have caused the emigration 
of a section of the Greek poi)ulation of certain villages of the Empire, 
and the circumstances likely to oppose the co-habitation and concord 
of the different elements. They have besides settled the question of 
the return to the rightful owners of the property unjustly confiscated 
from the Ottoman Greeks during the emigration, and have also taken 
measures to stop the repetition of similar acts. Sixty-nine Ottoman 
Greeks have already been released who, according to former reports, 
had been put under detention ; after a wliile, others will be released 
after an en(iuiry has been made into the nature and tiie gravity of their 
offences. Further, the Embassies of the Great Powers have accepted 
the proposition to send some public functionaries to Talaat Bey, Minister 
of the Interior, who is at Smyrna, with a view to receiving special 
communications on the subject of measures to be adopted and carried 


out. Consequently, as tliere is no further cause for misunderstanding, 
and seeing that it is obvious that the Imperial Government would not 
approve of one section of their Ottoman subjects being excluded from 
the performance of their religious duties and their children deprived 
of learning, it appears to be necessary for the above reason to re-open 
the Churches and Schools. 

This present and entirely friendly Tezkere has been addressed to 
your Holiness, with a view to your taking the necessary steps in the 
matter and ipform us of the result. 

The Minister of Justice and Public Worship. 

12th June, 1330/1914. 


His Excellency 

The Minister of Justice and Public Worship. 

We have received, and atteatively read through at the Assembly 
of the two Bodies under my i)residency, the Tezkere No. 55 , under date 
of 1st Shaban 332/15 Heziran 330, by which, in reply to the Patriarch- 
ate's Takrir of the 27th May, 1914, sent to the Grand Vizier, Your 
Excellency affirms his good dispositions with regard to our demands 
dealing with the disastrous persecutions and the re-establishment of 
order and tranquillity. Your Excellency says that the Imperial Govern- 
ment is already proceeding to examine into the causes of emigration 
on the part of several of the Ottoman Greeks belonging to certain Vi- 
layets of the Empire, and the measures to be adopted in order to remedy 
a situation alike prejudicial to the concord and tranquillity of the in- 
habitants. Also, that the question of the return of the property un- 
justly taken from the Ottoman Greeks during *he emigration has been 

While declaring that the closing of the Churches and Schools is 
the result of the profoundly deep feeling of mourning felt by our 
Nation at the persecutions which unfortunately continue without inter- 
mission, the Oecumenical Patriarchate begs to point out that it has 
heard with satisfaction of the reassuring promises given by the Govern- 
ment, on the basis of which it would be eager to re-open the Churches 
and Schools if it could really be assured that the facts correspond with 
the Government's assurances. 

Information has, however, reached the Patriarchate that this evil 
has not ceased ; that although the stream of emigration appears to 
be arrested, none of the Ottoman Greeks who left their villages have 


been I'e-establislied in tlieir homes, neither have they had restored to 
them the property which was taken from them, nor have they received 
means of support. 

The Imperial Government will kindly recognise that the Patriar- 
chate can, therefore, say in all truth that the promises made by the 
Government have not been carried out. An economic boycott is still 
in force throughout all the territory, even in that of Constantinople 
itself, which deprives the population of the Empire of their means of 

As regards the imprisonment of the Greeks, the Patriarchate begs 
the Government to order the immediate release of all Ottoman Greeks 
who have been arrested under various pretexts and thrown into prison 
during the persecution. To grant an amnesty to all those who for 
the same reasons ivere condemned to imprisonment. 

The Patriarchate thanks the Imperial Government for its interest 
in the matter of the Schools and Churches which deprives the in- 
habitants of their religious and sedular instruction. 

Awaiting the favourable disposition of the Government, 

I remain, 

The Patriarch of the Greeks, 

nth Shaban, 1332 (22 June), 1330/1914. 


To His Excellency 

The Minister of Justice and Public Worship. 


The two administrative Bodies of the Church, taking into con- 
sideration the situation created in Euroi)e and in view of tiie gravity 
of the i)osition of tlie Ottoman Emi)ire, convinced also that the assur- 
ances given by the Government following the demands made by the 
Patriarchate sliall be carried out to the letter, announces that it (the 
Patriarchate) has unanimously decided to proceed to the re-oi)ening 
of the Churches and Schools, as well as the resumption of the Patri- 
archal functions. 

The Greek Patriarch 

28th June, 1330/1914. 



To His Excellency 

The Minister of Justice and Public Worship. 


We hereby submit an annexed Schedule on the regrettable events 
which took place during the recent deportation of the various commu- 
nities of the region of Marmora and of Thrace. The Patriarch has 
already before had occasion to call the attention of the Government 
to some of these events. But, as shown by facts, not only has the 
wrong done to the Christians not diminished, but, on the contrary, 
appears to be assuming daily proportions of excessive gravity. 

1. — The expulsions and deportations which at the commencement 
were in process of operation in the regions comprising present 
Military operations, or those to come, are beginning to spread, and it 
would be difficult to find reasons to justify thdm. 

2. — The expatriation assumes in certain parts the cliaracter of a 
violent expulsion of the inhabitants to which is added all sorts of per- 
secutions quite unauthorised. 

The transfer of the deported and their installation are effected 
in regions which increase their sufferings, and are carried out in a 
manner endangering the life of the deported. 

In the majority of cases, these deportations are effected very rapid- 
ly, although no event can justify this severe and extraordinary haste. 

It was made impossible for those expelled to take away any lug- 
gage with them, and very often they were strictly prohibited from 
doing so. In many localities the goods abandoned by the deported 
became the booty of the first comers : they were replaced by others 
in their fields when the crops were ready, and their houses occupied 
by persons who had no right to them at all. 

The Patriarchate, aware of the docile character and loyalty of its 
Christians, cannot therefore admit that these people have done any- 
thing against the interests of the State. While expressing our regret 
at the excessively severe measures applied to the Christians under our 
authority, the Patriarchate hopes that it will please the Government 
to order these lamentable events to cease and that the fortunes of the 
deported be taken care of ; that the latter also should be afforded 
assistance towards their maintenace, the more so as the resources of 
the Patriarchate, being completely exhausted, we are incapable of 
providing for the wants of such a large population. The Patriarchate 
would further ask the Government to see that the displaced be con- 
ducted with humanity whenever necessity in future dictates such meas- 


ures ; that their sufferings be alleviated by active assistance, through 
sufficient time being given them to attend to the preservation of their 
property, by means being taken to reduce the hardships to which the 
deported are exposed, especially as regards the sick, and the women 
and children. Finally, that their property should be protected during 
their absence. 

The Patriarch of the Orthodox Greeks, 

19th June, 1331/1915. 


To His Holiness, 

The Patriarch of the Orthodox Greeks, 
Your Holiness, 

It has been ascertained that certain religious authorities have, 
through takrirs or Memorandums addressed, endeavoured to interfere 
with the displacement of certain inhabitants from military zones to 
other regions, which have been found necessary. 

The adoption of such measures is subordinate to military reasons, 
and it belongs to the military authorities to appreciate its character 
and importance ; while the carrying out of these, measures as well 
as the protection of the inhabitants devolves entirely upon the civil 

Inasmuch as any remark made or step taken by religious heads 
of Bodies regarding the aforesaid measures of the Government are 
not consistent with the situation, nor with the qualification or compe- 
tence of the said religious heads, and as in this instance, the present- 
ation of petitions on the part of the public to the competent Autho- 
rities, and the regular interpellations on the part of their deputies, 
would be more efficacious, for these reasons the present friendly 
Tezkere has been written, so that Your Holiness may henceforth 
abstain also from making similar communications. 

From the Minister of Justice and Public Worship 

The Under Secretary of State 

YousEOUF Kkmal. 




Patriarchal and Synodical Encyclical Letters 

of the Greek Patriarchate 
to the Metropolitans of the GEcumenical See. 

Your Grace, 

The information that successively readies us rep^arding the dis- 
astrous persecutions practised against our nation has from the very 
outset profoundly moved our Church, concerning the protection of 
the Christians and the safeguard of their rights as men and citizens, 
which have been so shamefully violated and in so unprecedented a 

And although the Patriarchate appealed again and again to the 
Imperial Government, asking for efficient protection to be given to 
the persecuted Christians, yet the acts of cruelty, the outrages and 
persecutions, though pointed out on several occasions to the Govern- 
ment, both by Takrirs and by Committees, have not ceased ; indeed 
they have spread more and more, until of late they have assumed the 
character of a general and systematic persecution of our race. 

The first act of violence against the Orthodox inaugurated in the 
form of an illicit boycott, and arbitrary extortions, was followed some 
time back by an unprecedented expulsion of the villages and whole 
communities of the Orthodox of Thrace, who were plundered, oppress- 
ed and intimidated to such an extent that they were compelled to quit 
their native country, abandoning their Churches, homes, fields, cattle, 
and all their wealth in general to the Moslem immigrants, who from 
all parts, and assisted by the authorities, established themselves in the 
Christian villages and houses. 

The expulsion of the Orthodox passed from Thrace to the continent 
of Asia Minor, where even greater violence was exercised, and pillaging, 
violating and brutal expulsions, also numerous murders of the Ortho- 
dox have taken place in several places. Desperate appeals have been 
made to the Church, 


What we have to contend with — as it is otherwise clearly seen by 
the violent pfiblications made against our religion and race — is a 
methodical plan, aiming at the annihilation of the entire Greek Ortho- 
dox population of the Empire. It is now being unmercifully enforced 
and with the greatest "contempt for every law and the principles of 
right and justice. 

In the face of a situation unknown to our Church and Nation 
even at the times of the greatest trials, the two Executive bodies of 
the Patriarchate, after having exhausted all the ordinary measures for 
the protection of the Orthodox Greeks, who are expelled from their 
native soil, and seeing with consternation the great storm which has 
burst over our Church and Nation, has decided, owing to the gravity 
of the occasion, to call a meeting on Pentecost, the 25th inst. After 
seriously considering the whole evidence of the iniquities committed 
and received lately from Asia Minor, and after deliberation as to what 
was to be done, has decided on the following, viz : As a token of 
mourning, for the implacable persecution of both the Church and the 
Nation, their functions shall be suspended in all the Diocese until the 
situation becomes ameliorated. That the public religious exercises be 
restricted to the absolute necessities of the Christians, in accordance 
with enclosed note. That the regular service at the Patriarchate shall 
cease, and that the two Bodies should occupy themselves exclusively 
with the sole question of the persecutions that so dangerously affect 
us, and that finally, the Autocephalus sister Churches should be ur- 
gently informed of the tempest that has burst upon the great Church 
of Christ and its flock. 

We also recommend that prayers be offered up by your flock to 
God, that it may please Him to extend His Mercy to the Church and 
the Nation, so that our faith in Jesus Christ be not extinguished in 
our days in tlie Country which was the cradle of our holy religion. 

May the Grace and Mercy of God be with Your Grace. 

(Signatures of H.H. the Patriarch and the Synodical 

May 19th, 1914. 



Patriarchal Letter to the 
Autocephalus Orthodox (Independent) Churches, 

The Districts of this Near East, the cradle of Christianity, where 
so many acts and incomparable monuments demonstrated the divine 
teaching of the Gospel, bequeathed to the world by the Saviour, in- 
cluding the town of Saint Constantine, for centuries the torch of faith 
of the Universe, have been destined to fall one by one under the in- 
tolerable yoke of infidel conquerors. 

Although many flourishing Christian populations and Episcopal 
Sees have disappeared, the holy name of Christ has not altogether been 
effaced in these districts by the general catastroi)he. The changes 
which took place at the beginning of the last century, in the 
political relations of Nations and States, and the active interference of 
Christian Europe in matters appertaining to the East, brought about 
a happy transformation in the destinies of the Christians in the East. 
A certain security for the future, and an existence relatively tolerable 
was promised them. By virtue of treaties and solemn engagements 
and obligations by Turkey towards the European Cabinets, the liberty 
to exercise their rights as men and citizens, and the respect due to their 
lives, honour and wealth, their national and religious existence were 
ensured. The Ottoman Constitution established under such happy au- 
spices in 1918 not only ratified and strengthened these guarantees in 
favour of the Christians, but also gave promise of a more generous ex- 
tention of their rights, by granting them almost entire equality with 
the Moslem element. 

It appears, however, that the Christians are doomed to undergo 
hard trials such as they never experienced even during the more gloomy 
days of servitude. Outrages and crimes committed of late, with the 
complicity of the authorities, against the Christian populations of 
Thrace and the horrible cruelties perpetrated against the Christians of 
Asia Minor, lea^e no doubt in our minds that the Orthodox population 
of the East has to contend with a systematic and mature plan which 
menaces the population with complete annihilation. 

As a matter of fact, the brutal expulsion of entire Christian popu- 
lations of towns and villages in Thrace is being carried out, so that 
Thrace, a European province which has preserved for the last two 
thousand years its Christian character, and numbering sixteen Bishop- 
rics, with a very dense Christian population, surpassing even up to 
this day the Moslem element, runs the risk of rapidly becoming a 

145 t 

Turkish and Moslem Province should things be allowed to take their 
free course. 

The persecution o£ the Orthodox people has now begun in the 
territory of Asia-Minor, and if anything, with still greater violence. 
The cries of despair from the Christians have already reached the 
Church. We, therefore, and the Ecclesiastical Bodies here assembled 
and deliberating in common, have decided : 

1. — To acknowledge the situation existing for several months 
by declaring the Great Apostolic and CEcumenical Church of 
Constantinople, and its spiritual flock, to be in a state of per- 

2. — To order the general mourning of Orthodoxy through the 
suspension of Divine Service and the closing of the Schools. 

3. — )Tx^ address an appeal of distress to, and solicit the consolation 
and assistance, if possible, of the Sister Orthodox Independent 
(autocephalus) Churches, in our affliction, as well as the 
danger overhanging us, and asking them, as members of 
Christ's Church, for their immediate fraternal assistance for 
the salvation of Christendom, threatened with annihilation in 
the place of its origin. 

We are, therefore, firmly convinced that, hearing of the danger 
that threatens to totally destroy the Mother Church of Constantinople, 
the Holy Sister Churches will pray to the Divine Founder of the Church 
for the salvation of the Christians of the East ; that they will further 
give us a helping hand in these moments of unspeakable distress, and 
will hasten, by the steps they will take with their respective Govern- 
ments, to contribute the help so urgently needed by Christendom 
and Civilisation which are menaced in the East. 

Happy in this conviction, we address ourselves through the 
channel of Your Eminence to the Holy Sister Church, of whom we ex- 
pect all the consolation possible, for we are taxed beyond our strength 
and our soul is deeply wounded. 

Thereupon we send Your Eminency our Apostolic Greetings, and 
remain your brothers in Jesus Christ. 

The Archbishop Of Constantinople. 

May 19th, 1914. 


Note to the Great Powers. 

The anti-Christian movement which now agitates Turkey, and 
which the CEcumenic Patriarchate considers its duty to bring to the 
notice of the Great European Powers, broke out for the first time 
during the second Balkan War, when the Ottoman Army re-occupied 
Eastern Thrace. It originated in the environs of Adrianople, and 
thence passed on to the whole territory of that province, in which the 
Ottoman Authorities had already resolved to over-turn the ethnological 
order of things by a war of extermination of the Greek element. 

Then followed arrests of Cliristian notables, acts of plunder and 
violation and every kind of outrage. 

For a certain time it was thought that all these violent acts were 
none other than the consequence of the War and the bitter feeling 
aroused, and that they would disappear as soon as Peace was con- 
cluded and normal conditions were established again. 

The persistency, however, of the evil made it evident that the 
calamities that had marked the re-occupation of Thrace were only the 
first steps that lead to the systematic annihilation of the Christians in 

It soon became clear that everything took place in accordance 
with a premediated plan, in conformity with the assertions made that 
Thrace was a purely Moslem province. A similar plan began to 
develop itself in Asia-Minor. There also the Greek Communities were 
condemned to complete ruin, the formerly flourishing Dioceses of the 
coast becoming the theatre of a savage devastation, so that the Chris- 
tians desirous of saving their lives were obliged to deport in all haste, 
leaving their property and wealth in the hands of the Moslems. Here 
also the wish of the Ottoman Government to modify the respective 
importance of the national element is on the point of being realized. 

The Turkish Government, in the face of an angry public opinion, 
has consequently had recourse to a series of arguments which cannot 
stand examination. It pretends that the situation we denounce is 
the natural result of the War and its miseries. But how can we 
attribute to any other cause but premeditation on their part the de- 
vastation which starts at Adrianople, methodically ravages the whole of 
Thrace, reaches the doors of Constantinople, which it respects, and 
finally passes over to Asia-Minor. 

The Ottoman Government avers, by the mouth of her most autho- 
rised Representatives, that the exodus of the Christians is due to 


outward solicitations, and that the excesses committed by the Moslems 
are only acts of vengeance. 

These justifications would tend to make us believe that there 
really existed persons who consented to abandon their wealth, earned 
by the sweat of their brow, in order to seek after misfortune and 
poverty. Also that the Ottoman Government is unable to enforce 
the respect due to its laws. 

In opposition to these explanations is the hatred with which every- 
thing that is Christian is constantly attacked by the Press, which is 
not a free one, and consequently cannot but be official ; and care of 
the officials, entrusted with the expulsion of the Christians from their 
houses, to obtain from them by force signed declarations to the effect 
that they voluntarily deport ; we were to consider also the 
boycott applied, under the indifferent eye of the Police, even in the 
town of Constantinople itself in which Greek shops are plundered and 
shut up. We can therefore pronounce, without hesitation, our opinion 
as to the value of the arguments set forth by the Ottoman Govern- 
ment, and are justified in maintaining that those who govern in Turkey 
are actually applying a complete plan of extermination of the Greeks. 
In reply to the reiterated entreaties of the Patriarchate to the Ottoman 
Government, the latter only replied by empty promises. 

The Patriarchate then submitted its complaints to the Sovereign, 
but this step also resulted in nothing. It then decided to close its 
churches and schools, considered useless to a population whose extinc- 
tion was apparently close at hand. 

Threatened by this peril, the Patriarchate now makes a desperate 
appeal to the Great Powers demanding their protection and inter- 
vention in the name of humanity, in that of civilization and justice, 
in the name of the many Treaties, whereby the existence of the 
Christians in the East has been guaranteed, beseeching them to prevent 
the accomplishment of that which centuries of tyranny never dared to 
dream of. 

She therefore devotes whatever force she still possesses to implore 
the support of the Great Powers in favour of these remnants of 
Christianity in the East, and begs of them to meditate for the appli- 
cation of reforms in Turkey and Asia-Minor with the Ottoman Govern- 

In doing justice to the requests formulated by the Patriarchate, 
the Great Powers will avert once more the danger which threatens 
Christendom and civilization. 

Patriarchate, 2/15 July, 1914. 

Printed by The Hesperia Press, 101, Dean Street, Oxford Street, London, W. 1* 

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